, 2001 and Ahmed et al , 2004), which is consistent with the grou

, 2001 and Ahmed et al., 2004), which is consistent with the groundwater chemistry being strongly regulated by the precipitation/dissolution of carbonate minerals (Bhowmick et al., 2013). The fact that conditions are thermodynamically favorable for precipitation of siderite within the aquifer sediments provides a plausible explanation for the apparent decoupling between As and Fe observed in Fig. 6. Seventy-seven percent of groundwater samples exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) GLV for Mn of 0.91 μM (Fig. 6). Exposure to elevated Mn in drinking water is associated selleck screening library with neurotoxic effects in children and diminished intellectual function (Wasserman

et al., 2006). Mn oxides, found in soils and sediments, are highly reactive and strong scavengers of heavy metals and trace elements (Post, 1999), including As. The presence of manganese oxides decreases As availability and As mobilization both by the oxidation of arsenite and sorption of arsenate (Lafferty et al., 2011). This behavior is consistent with the observed negative correlation between As and Mn evident in Fig. 5. Groundwater selleck chemicals was slightly saturated to undersaturated with respect to rhodocrosite.

Slightly to undersaturated groundwater with respect to rhodocrosite has also been observed in the Bengal Basin (e.g. Mukherjee et al., 2008). Precipitation of rhodocrosite may occur in reducing environments and removes Mn(II) from groundwater (Mukherjee et al., 2008). The negative correlation observed

(-)-p-Bromotetramisole Oxalate between AsTot and rhodocrosite (Fig. 7b) tentatively suggests that rhodocrosite may be a potential host phase of As. However, further work would be required to confirm this suggestion. In addition to As and Mn contamination, about 40% of samples had fluoride concentrations exceeding the WHO GLV of 0.07 μM (see Fig. 6). Khadka et al. (2004) also detected F in the tubewell water of Nawalparasi. However, they also reported a positive correlation between F and As concentrations, a feature which was not observed by this study. A desorption/adsorption study of Kim et al. (2012) indicated that if Fe(III) (oxyhdr)oxide is the host for both As and F−, then co-contamination may be induced by the reductive dissolution of the Fe(III) (oxyhdr)oxide in reducing aquifers. Exposure to elevated arsenic and fluoride in drinking water (>WHO GLV) can cause endemic arsenicosis and endemic fluorosis, affect the immune system, reduce IQ levels and decrease intellectuality of children (Wang et al., 2006, Wasserman et al., 2004, Rocha-Amador et al., 2009 and Rocha-Amador et al., 2011). Dissolution and precipitation of Ca minerals (such as fluorite and calcite) and F-adsorption–desorption typically control fluoride in groundwater (Guo et al., 2012). The majority of the groundwater samples here are saturated with CaCO3 and undersaturated with respect to CaF2.

The development and evaluation of CSILs is of great importance in

The development and evaluation of CSILs is of great importance in molecular breeding, and such stocks have been employed successfully in rice, where many CSILs have been developed [32]. Once favorable alleles in QTL/genes have been identified on introgressed segments, the CSILs become candidates for selection in subsequent molecular breeding strategies [26]. In this present study, we found a broad-spectrum resistant CSIL, IL089, which carried three introgressed segments located on Chrs.A7, D7, and D11. The segment on Chr.D7 conferred tolerance to the three Vorinostat mw V. dahliae isolates used in

this study. The segment on Chr.D11 was associated with resistance to the V. dahliae V07DF2 and D8092 isolates. When the two segments were combined in IL089, it was resistant to all three V. dahliae isolates. Combining Sirolimus cost different resistance QTL could allow breeding broad-spectrum resistant cultivars. For example, we could pyramid the following resistance QTL: qRV991-A3-2 (resistant to V. dahliae

V991), qRV07DF2-D11-1 (resistant to V. dahliae V07DF2) and qRD8092-A5-1 (resistant to V. dahliae D8092). These three high-resistance QTL could be combined to breed a cotton cultivar that exhibits broad-spectrum resistance to Verticillium wilt, using a modified backcrossing pyramiding breeding scheme with MAS. Such MAS breeding experiments are being conducted presently in our laboratory. Two cultivated tetraploid cotton species, G. hirsutum (AD)1 and G. barbadense (AD)2, contain the A and D subgenomes. The effects of the two subgenomes on yield and fiber quality are important research objectives for the production of tetraploid cultivars. A meta-analysis revealed that cotton fiber QTL are enriched in the Dt subgenome [33], but a more recent study showed that the subgenomic

distribution of fiber qualities is equally divided between the chromosomes of the two subgenomes [34]. In the present study, the number of additive QTL detected in the At sub-genome was approximately equal to that found in the Dt sub-genome in the same CSIL population [18]. This is the first report to consider the effect of the two subgenomes on resistance to Verticillium wilt. In the present study, we tried to analyze the effect of the two Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase subgenomes on host resistance to Verticillium wilt. Eighteen QTL associated with resistance/susceptibility to one of the V. dahliae isolates assessed were detected and, of these, 16 QTL were located in the At subgenome and seven in the Dt sub-genome. A chi-square test of QTL distribution on the At/Dt sub-genomes showed no significant difference in the distribution of the QTL between these subgenomes. Similar results were obtained for the other two V. dahliae isolates. These results suggest that the effects of the two subgenomes on the numbers of resistance and susceptibility QTL were insignificant. The total additive effect of resistance or susceptibility QTL on the At sub-genome was negative, but the total effect on the Dt subgenome was positive.


we report large individual differences in the impac


we report large individual differences in the impact of imageability on reading aloud in a sample of 18 skilled readers. This previously undocumented individual variability may explain the variability of findings among previous group studies of imageability effects in reading aloud. We then addressed the second question, whether differences in the impact of imageability on reading aloud correlated with neuroanatomical differences in brain circuits relating semantics to phonology, using diffusion tensor imaging Navitoclax purchase (DTI). The DTI analysis was conducted using data obtained in an fMRI study by Graves et al. (2010), in which the modulation of brain activation during reading aloud was associated with several commonly-studied lexical properties (frequency, imageability, spelling-sound consistency, and others). That study used a novel design in which stimulus words were selected so as to de-correlate these factors, yielding stimuli that varied independently along each dimension. This design provided a powerful method for examining brain activity associated with each factor decoupled from the others. It also ensured that any spatially overlapping neural effects of the factors would be due to shared neural substrates rather than statistical

correlations among the factors. Imageability, the semantic factor, was reliably associated with activation in several regions during reading aloud. These included the angular gyrus (AG) check details and posterior cingulate/precuneus, regions associated with reading words of high imageability in previous studies (Bedny and Thompson-Schill, 2006, Oxalosuccinic acid Binder et al., 2005, Binder et al., 2005 and Sabsevitz et al., 2005). The study also identified a novel region centered on the inferior temporal sulcus (ITS) that was activated by words with low spelling-sound consistency. Whereas there was a strong effect of imageability in the analyses of brain activation, the effect on naming latencies, at the group level, was modest (Graves et al., 2010). Imageability showed a reliable pairwise correlation (r = −0.097, p < 0.05) with response time (RT) in the expected direction (higher imageability

was associated with lower RTs), but it did not account for unique variance in a multivariate regression model. This divergence between fMRI and behavioral effects of imageability might reflect greater sensitivity of the brain measure compared to the behavioral measure. However, it also might be related to variation in participants’ reliance on semantics in reading aloud. The DTI analysis in the present study was initiated to determine whether individual differences related to the use of semantics were associated with differences in connectivity within the reading network. We hypothesized that greater use of semantic information in reading aloud would be correlated specifically with greater structural connectivity between semantic and phonological nodes in the reading network.

, 2011) The olfactory system has attracted considerable interest

, 2011). The olfactory system has attracted considerable interest as a promising source of cells for transplantation after SCI, because of its capacity for lifelong regeneration (Lindsay et al., 2010). The main focus of attention in the olfactory tissue has been a unique type of glia, known as the olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) (Doucette, 1991, Raisman, 2001 and Ramón-Cueto and Muñoz-Quiles, 2011). These cells reside within the two SGI-1776 supplier main regions of the olfactory axis: peripherally, in the lamina propria and centrally, along the nerve fiber layer of the olfactory bulb (OB) (Au and Roskams, 2003). The OECs are responsible for maintaining an environment which favors neurite

outgrowth and the creation of new functional synapses

in the central nervous system (Au and Roskams, 2003 and Franssen et al., 2007). Due to their supposed axon regenerative properties, OECs have been extensively studied in animal models of SCI. Although some research has shown locomotor and axonal regeneration improvements, a consensus on the efficacy of this cellular transplantation and mode of action has yet to be reached (Barnett and Riddell, 2007, Boyd et al., 2004, Franssen et al., 2008, Kubasak et al., 2008, Raisman and Li, 2007, Ramón-Cueto and Avila, 1998, Ramón-Cueto et al., 1998, Ramón-Cueto et al., 2000 and Tetzlaff et al., Antidiabetic Compound Library concentration 2011). The source of OECs for transplantation into injured spinal cord is also subject of debate (Richter et al., 2005). However, the use of olfactory lamina propria (OLP) grafts, which is a more accessible source of OECs in humans, could enable a safer approach for autologous transplantation (Bianco et al., 2004, Féron et al., 1998 and Franklin, 2002). The devastating prognosis associated with the social and economic impacts, has led to increased efforts to find therapies that provide functional recovery for people who undergo severe SCI (Blight, 2002 and van den Berg et al., 2010). According to previous studies, the use of OLP transplantation is a promising, though controversial,

repair strategy (Lu et al., 2001, Lu et al., 2002 and Steward MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit et al., 2006). In the present study we hypothesized that the OECs present in OLP grafts could create a favorable glial environment that would favor neurite and axonal outgrowth after thoracic spinal cord transection in rats. Thus, OLP transplantation could produce higher levels of hindlimb motor recovery when compared to respiratory lamina propria (RLP), which is a graft devoid of OECs. Additionally, we tested the efficacy of OLP transplantation in three different therapeutic windows (acutely, 2 weeks and 4 weeks post-injury), since another key aspect in the translation of this therapy to clinical practice is their potential to produce axonal regeneration even when transplantation is delayed after SCI. Fig.

(A much loved fourth grandchild, Jarrad, predeceased him ) “

(A much loved fourth grandchild, Jarrad, predeceased him.) “
“If I have seen further, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants” – Sir Isaac Newton’s MK0683 research buy quote could aptly be applied to the progression of the physiotherapy profession, and its debt of gratitude to one of its own giants and pioneers, Geoffrey Maitland MBE. Maitland was instrumental and inspirational in developing the field of musculoskeletal physiotherapy. He introduced careful and precise examination of patients, and emphasised the need for continual assessment of patients that was to be used to

guide management. These aspects were clearly the forerunners of what we now refer to as clinical reasoning and patient-centred care. He was passionate about postgraduate education for qualified physiotherapists and this helped to pave the way for our current position as autonomous practitioners, and a modern musculoskeletal specialist profession. Born in South Australia in 1924, he joined the RAAF in 1942 and was drafted to Britain to fly Sunderland bombers, and to take part in the Battle of Britain. Whilst in the UK, he met his wife and life partner Anne, marrying in 1945, and sharing 60 years together until

her death in 2009. After leaving the RAAF, Maitland trained at the University of Adelaide, graduating in 1949, and later went on to lecture at the South Australian Physiotherapy School. It was here that he developed his special interest in the use of passive

joint mobilisation techniques, and the assessment and treatment of patients with spinal problems. His integrated approach to assessment MAPK Inhibitor Library and treatment of the patient, demanding precise communication and questioning, careful assessment and, vitally, re-assessment after treatment, and the integration of scientific knowledge with the clinical decision-making process still underpins the practice of high quality manual therapy. Whilst common place today, these approaches were revolutionary 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase in their time, for a profession that had been so medically directed previously. Maitland’s “permeable brick wall” concept encapsulates the integration of science and clinical practice, encouraging the therapist to balance information from questioning and from physical testing, with research evidence and past experience, to come up with an individualised and specific programme of treatment for each patient. It offers the therapist the chance to break free and be innovative. His suggestion that “Technique is the brainchild of ingenuity” is borne out in an incident from a course Maitland was running, where he was treating a patient in front of students. When asked what technique he was doing, he replied, “I don’t know, I’ve never done it before” – the technique was specific to that individual patient and based on his examination findings only, not on textbook techniques.

51, p <  001, β = − 36, R2 change =  09, ƒ2 =  10, with higher sc

51, p < .001, β = −.36, R2 change = .09, ƒ2 = .10, with higher scores in mindfulness being related to lower current depression. Finally, to test the interaction between neuroticism and mindfulness, the product of centered EPQ neuroticism and centered FFMQ sumscores was entered as an additional predictor in the third step. In line with our hypothesis, the interaction between neuroticism and mindfulness emerged as a significant predictor, t = −2.49, p = .01, β = −1.00, R2 change = .03, ƒ2 = .03. Fig. 1 illustrates the interaction by depicting the regression lines of the relation between neuroticism and current depression at high, medium and low (+1 SD, mean, −1 SD) scores of the FFMQ sumscore scale. Decreases in the

slope of the regression line with increasing mindfulness scores show that the relation between neuroticism

and current symptoms of depression becomes weaker with higher levels of dispositional mindfulness. In order to further characterize Panobinostat cost the nature of this interaction we used the Johnson–Neymann (J–N) technique (following suggestions and using the SPSS script provided by Hayes & Matthes, 2009). The J–N technique allows to directly identify points in the range of the moderator variable where the effect of the predictor on the outcome transitions from being statistically significant to nonsignificant by finding the value of the moderator variable for which the ratio of the conditional effect to its standard error is equal to the critical t score. The conditional Digestive enzyme effect of neuroticism on current depression transitioned in significance http://www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyclopamine.html at a FFMQ sumscore of 145.51, b = .30, SE = .15, t = 1.97, p = .05, 95% CIs [.00, .60], at the 90th percentile of the distribution in our sample, with the relation between EPQ neuroticism and BDI-II scores significant at FFMQ sumscores below this threshold and nonsignificant at FFMQ sumscores above this threshold. In order

to further investigate which components of mindfulness skills were most relevant in moderating the effects of neuroticism on current depression, we repeated the above analyzes separately with all five subscales of the FFMQ. After adjusting α-levels for familywise error rate to α = .01, none of the interactions were significant. The only interaction that approached significance was for the Describing subscale, interaction neuroticism by FFMQ Describing: t = −2.88, p = .02, β = −.66, R2 change = .02, f2 = .03. Probing this effect using the J–N technique showed that significance at the .05 level transitioned at a score of 37.01, b = .40, SE = .20, t = 1.97, p = .050, 95% CIs [.00, .80], the 93rd percentile of the distribution in our sample with the pattern of the effect following that of the effect for the FFMQ sumscore, i.e. the conditional effect of neuroticism on current depression being significant below and nonsignificant above the threshold. As most of the subscales of the FFMQ are moderately intercorrelated (intercorrelations in our sample ranged from r = .08 to .

Tal como dizem os AA, «os IBP

são frequentemente prescrit

Tal como dizem os AA, «os IBP

são frequentemente prescritos por motivos inadequados e por um período de tempo que muitas vezes ultrapassa o recomendado. O aumento dramático do seu uso ao longo dos últimos anos tem levantado preocupações relativas à sua prescrição desnecessária, ao custo associado e aos riscos potenciais, uma vez que há uma taxa elevada de uso indevido desses medicamentos de acordo com critérios estabelecidos pelas sociedades científicas». Nós concluímos que a prescrição de IBP nas enfermarias deve ser mais criteriosa e que, a nível do ambulatório e nos cuidados extra‐hospitalares10, selleck screening library os clínicos devem passar a considerar a interrupção dos IBP em alguns doentes, apesar da sua provável relutância, dado que, embora estes medicamentos estejam mais comummente associados a efeitos adversos menores, tais como cefaleias, náuseas, dor

abdominal, flatulência e diarreia, há uma evidência crescente de que eles podem estar associados a eventos adversos mais graves. É, pois, necessário que os médicos estejam atentos a esses efeitos adversos de modo a aconselhar os seus doentes a usarem os IBP somente quando indicado. “
“A ascite é a complicação mais frequente da cirrose, com metade dos doentes desenvolvendo ascite aos 10 anos de seguimento, o que se traduz num compromisso da sobrevida, com mortalidade de 50% aos 2 anos1. A formação da ascite deve‐se HSP inhibitor àativação de mecanismos neuro‐hormonais, cujo resultado é a retenção renal de sódio e água. Torna‐se, pois, evidente que para a mobilização do líquido ascítico é necessário obter um balanço negativo de sódio, o que é possível pela limitação da sua ingestão e pela utilização de diuréticos. A maioria dos doentes (90%) obtém uma resposta

adequada com esta estratégia e na minoria considerada como ascite Progesterone refratária outras opções terapêuticas deverão ser adotadas (paracenteses de repetição, TIPS, shunts cirúrgicos ou transplante hepático)2 and 3. Um dos grandes obstáculos ao controlo eficaz da ascite é a dificuldade dos doentes em aderirem a um regime alimentar hiposalino, o que compromete a resposta à dose máxima de diuréticos e por vezes os classifica erradamente como tendo ascite refratária. Um dos objetivos do tratamento é aumentar a excreção urinária para mais de 78 mmol/dia. Uma das formas de se avaliar a adesão à dieta restritiva em sal, bem como a resposta aos diuréticos, e uma estratégia de primeira linha quando a perda de peso é menor do que a esperada, é a determinação da excreção urinária de sódio no período de 24 horas4. Esta determinação, num número significativo de casos, não é totalmente correta nem fidedigna, devido à dificuldade dos doentes em efetuarem a recolha total do débito urinário. São várias as tentativas de se ultrapassar esta limitação, como seja a determinação de sódio em amostra isolada de urina, a natriurese induzida pela furosemida ou a razão Nau/Ku em amostra isolada de urina.

The CT scanner table height was set to the center of the greater

The CT scanner table height was set to the center of the greater trochanter. Patient data were evaluated with QCT-Pro software v4.1.3 with the QCT-Pro Bone Investigational Toolkit v2.0 (BIT) (Mindways Software,Austin,USA)

and also with Real Intage see more visualization software (KGT,Tokyo,Japan) based on 3D DICOM data to provide fusion functions and several geometrical measurements. All measurements were analyzed by a radiologist (M. Ito) blinded to treatment group assignment. The exact 3D rotation of the femur and the threshold setting for defining the bone contours appeared to be the two most critical steps for achieving accuracy and reproducibility in the automated procedures performed by QCT-Pro. The outer cortical BMD thresholds had to be adapted individually for each scan. The femoral neck axis was identified visually and also automatically with the “Optimize FN Axis” algorithm. QCT-Pro

BIT processing was then performed with a fixed bone threshold for cortical separation set to 350 mg/cm3 for all patients and visits. This application was used to measure hip axis length (HAL), femoral neck angle (FNA), and neck width. vBMD, cross-sectional area (CSA), and cross-sectional bone mass of the femoral neck (total, cortical, and trabecular region), as well as cortical thickness and cortical perimeter were also measured. Trabecular parameters in each subject were calculated based on the total and cortical parameters. Biomechanical properties were also derived from the cross-sectional parameters of the femoral neck. This comprehensive image data visualization software based on 3D DICOM data Sunitinib concentration provides fusion functions and several geometrical measurements. For bone analysis of the femoral shaft, this software was used for fusion of 3D images from baseline and images at 144 weeks to define the same regions of interest. The software was then used to measure the

outer perimeter, inner perimeter, bone area, cortical bone density, and cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) of the femoral shaft. The cross-sectional femoral neck data were derived on the basis of the geometrical axis to calculate volumetric total BMD (total vBMD; mg/cm3), cortical Rho BMD (cortical vBMD; mg/cm3), trabecular BMD (trabecular vBMD; mg/cm3), total CSA (cm2), cortical CSA (cm2), trabecular CSA (cm2), total bone mass (g), cortical bone mass (g), and trabecular bone mass (g). Cortical thickness (mm) and cortical perimeter (mm) were also derived. These parameters were all calculated with QCT-Pro. Because biomechanical parameters were determined on the principal axis, the cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI; mm4), the section modulus (SM; mm3), and buckling ratio (BR) were calculated from bone density and geometrical data. The CSMI is defined by the integration of products of incremental cross-sectional area and the square of their distance from the center of mass (centroid).

, 2007,

Lecluyse et al , 2012 and Mingoia et al , 2007)

, 2007,

Lecluyse et al., 2012 and Mingoia et al., 2007). However, these modifications, while increasing CYP activities and prolonging the functional lifespan of primary hepatocytes to a certain extent, do not recapitulate all the important functions of the liver, mainly because of the lack of hepatic non-parenchymal cells (NPC; Hasmall et al., 2001 and Roberts et al., 2007). Substantial improvements in hepatocyte in vitro models were achieved by the development of more complex human liver systems created by co-culturing of parenchymal ITF2357 cost cells (PC) with NPC or other cell types. For example, human hepatocytes in a 2D micro-patterned co-culture with mouse 3 T3-J2 fibroblasts ( Khetani and Bhatia, 2008) maintained hepatocellular function for several weeks. Yet, the model may not be physiologically relevant for detection of species-specific Natural Product Library drug toxicity due to the lack of other liver NPC and the fact that a mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line is used for stabilization of human hepatocyte function ( Hasmall et al., 2001 and Roberts et al., 2007). In this regard, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and Kupffer cells play a key role in modulating

DILI, including idiosyncratic toxicity and hepatocarcinogenesis, probably due to the release of inflammatory mediators, growth factors and reactive oxygen species after their activation by drugs ( Hasmall et al., 2001, Lecluyse et al., 2012 and Roberts et al., 2007). More sophisticated models containing hepatocytes and NPC are the 3D liver co-culture bioreactors Dimethyl sulfoxide ( Dash et al., 2009, Gerlach et al., 2003, Sivaraman et al., 2005 and Zeilinger et al., 2011). These models can be kept in culture for several weeks but due to their complexity may not be suited for drug testing in pharmaceutical industry. At present only few human co-culture models are

available which can be used for drug-safety assessment (Dash et al., 2009, Khetani and Bhatia, 2008 and Naughton et al., 1994). There is an urgent need to establish and validate human in vitro liver models able to produce clinically-relevant data. We therefore characterized a 3D liver culture model using both human and rat primary cells and evaluated its suitability to assess DILI potential in vitro. The model originally described by Naughton and co-workers is based on an industry-standard multiwell format and is therefore amenable to higher-throughput testing ( Naughton et al., 1994 and Naughton et al., 1995). We show that hepatocytes inoculated into a pre-established NPC culture grown on 3D nylon scaffolds can be kept in culture for up to 3 months while maintaining some important hepatic functions and metabolic CYP activities. This allows exposure to compounds over longer time and allows repeated drug-treatments which are not possible using short-term 2D hepatocyte cultures or other currently available 3D models.

For nutrient limitation the Michaelis-Menten formula is applied w

For nutrient limitation the Michaelis-Menten formula is applied with constant KN as the half-saturation constant. Respiration (RESP) consists of basal maintenance and photorespiration, each being proportional to the phytoplankton biomass, where the basic dark respiration rBR is proportional to the maximum photosynthetic rate, and the photorespiration rPR is proportional Belinostat manufacturer to the gross primary production. The temperature dependence fT is modelled

according to fT = exp(0.0769(T – 10)), with the constant 0.0769 expressing the respiration change fT with temperature: it doubles for every 10°C increase in temperature, so that fT(To) = 1 at To = 10°C. Phytoplankton mortality (MORP) is assumed to be proportional to the phytoplankton standing stock, with a mortality rate mp. Copepod grazing (GRZ) is assumed to be proportional to the copepod biomass Zoop with rate gmax, but this rate is modified by the Michaelis-Menten function of phytoplankton biomass with the

half-saturation constant kPhyt subject to a threshold Phyto, below which grazing ceases. The state equation for nutrients includes the first four terms on the right-hand side expressing the horizontal and vertical advection and diffusion of nutrients, where the same velocities and diffusion coefficients are used as for phytoplankton, and the four processes are nutrient uptake (UPT), dark respiratory release (RELE), remineralization in the water column (REM) and zooplankton excretion (EXCZ). Nutrient uptake (UPT) appears in the nitrogen PI3K inhibitor equation for positive net production only in the euphotic zone. The constant gN is the N:C ratio according to the Redfield ratio. Respiration in the dark consumes particulate organic matter. To conserve matter, the respiration term in the equation for phytoplankton carbon must be balanced by a nutrient release term (RELE) in the equation for nitrogen. This term parameterizes the contribution of respiration to the nutrient pool at the given fixed ratio gN. For light PLEK2 intensities below the compensation intensity, the respiratory

release is regenerated immediately into nitrogen. The fractions of dead phyto- and zooplankton and of faecal pellets that are instantaneously remineralized in the water column by the microbial food web (REM) are given by the proportionality factors pM for phytoplankton, pZ for zooplankton and pF for faecal pellets. Excretion of dissolved (EXCZ) and particulate material is parameterized as fixed proportions of zooplankton grazing (ez), faecal pellet production (f) and zooplankton mortality (mz), on condition that ez + f + mz = 1. The benthic detritus equation consists of two terms: sedimentation out of the water column to the bottom (indicated by the integration from the surface to the bottom H, simultaneously from all depths), and regeneration at the bottom.