Both are strongly associated with underlying alcohol and drug dep

Both are strongly associated with underlying alcohol and drug dependence. Prevention and treatment implications are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Selleck GSK2126458 Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: n-3 (omega-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fish, and nuts can regulate inflammatory processes and responses.

Objective: We investigated whether dietary intakes of PUFAs [n-3, n-6 (omega-6), and alpha-linolenic acid], fish, and nuts were associated with 15-y mortality attributed to noncardiovascular, noncancer inflammatory diseases.


The analyses involved 2514 participants aged >49 y at baseline. Dietary data were collected by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire, and PUFA, fish, and nut intakes were calculated. Inflammatory disease mortality was confirmed from the Australian National Death Index.

Results: Over 15 y, 214 subjects died of inflammatory diseases. Women in the highest tertiles of total n-3 PUFA intake, compared with those in the lowest tertile of intake at baseline, had a 44% reduced risk of inflammatory disease mortality (P for trend = 0.03). This association was not observed in men. In both men and women, each 1-SD increase in energy-adjusted intake of alpha-linolenic acid was inversely associated with inflammatory mortality (hazard ratio: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.98). Subjects in the second and third tertiles of nut consumption had a 51% and 32% reduced risk

of inflammatory disease mortality, respectively, compared with those in the first tertile

(reference). Dietary intakes of long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs Quizartinib purchase and fish were not associated with inflammatory disease mortality.

Conclusions: We report on a novel link between dietary buy LDK378 intake of total n-3 PUFA and risk of inflammatory disease mortality in older women. Furthermore, our data indicate a protective role of nuts, but not fish, against inflammatory disease mortality. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:1073-9.”
“Lipase immobilization on asymmetric polysulfone (PS) membranes was done by physical adsorption and covalent coupling techniques. The glutaraldehyde (Glu) crosslink showed maximum immobilization (1.53 mg/cm2) on the hydrazine (Hz)-modified membrane surface. Lipase immobilization on the membrane was proved by different analytical tools (viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy). The hydrolase-immobilized enzyme marked its hydrolyzing ability to different oils (olive, palm, and castor oils). The hydrolysis yield (U/mg) for the different immobilized membranes was in the following order: Olive oil > Palm oil > Castor oil. The PSHzGlulipase membrane showed maximum hydrolyzing ability for olive oil (62.37 U/mg) and minimum hydrolyzing ability for castor oil (38.11 U/mg). The low aptitude for the hydrolysis of castor oil was explained by the presence of ricinoleic acid in the main composition. The lowest affinity toward castor oil (MichaelisMenten constant = 18.86 mM) also featured the same.

e ,one water heater for one user, (r) radial, i e , N users suppl

e.,one water heater for one user, (r) radial, i.e., N users supplied via radial pipes from a central heater, (2) dendritic network constructed by pairing N users around a central heating, and (4) dendritic network constructed by quadrupling the elemental areas occupied by the users.

We show that there is an optimal cluster size (N) as a tradeoff between central losses and distributed losses. We also discover that several distinct (abrupt) design “”transitions”" must exist: the recommended design changes through designs 0, r, 2, and 4, as the amount of water used by each individual increases in time with the standard of living. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3516155]“
“PURPOSE: To determine the change in dioptric power on excised human corneoscleral buttons after microwave keratoplasty application and to determine the qualitative effect on the cornea using histology and scanning electron microscopy.

SETTING: Department of Academic Anlotinib price Ophthalmology, Rayne Institute, St. Thomas’ Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

METHODS: Excised human corneoscleral buttons were treated with a prototype microwave keratoplasty ring applicator. A 28.12 W, 1-second application was performed on the corneas using a 6.0 mm diameter inner conductor and an 8.4 mm diameter outer conductor. Videokeratography was performed with a topographic modeling system (TMS-1) before and after microwave keratoplasty. The induced change in corneal

curvature was calculated using the mean dioptric power of rings situated 2.0 to 6.0 mm from the geometrical apex of the corneas. Scanning electron AZD8186 order microscopy and toluidine-blue light microscopy were performed to determine the effect on the corneal stroma.

RESULTS: Six excised corneoscleral buttons

from 6 donors were used. The mean reduction in curvature after microwave keratoplasty application was 3.07 diopters +/- 2.62 (SD). Scanning and light microscopy showed microwave-induced shrinkage see more of corneal stromal collagen with little disturbance to the overlying epithelium.

CONCLUSION: Microwave keratoplasty reduced corneal curvature and has therapeutic potential as a noninvasive alternative to excimer laser surgical correction of myopia and as a treatment for corneal ectasia.”
“A chemical investigation of the chloroform extract of the roots of Uvaria welwitschii (Annonaceae), an African traditional medicine taken for stomach ache, led to the isolation of eight new compounds, named welwitschins A-H (1-8), together with five known compounds (9-13). The structural elucidation by spectroscopic studies of the compounds isolated is described. All new compounds were flavonoids having a 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl moiety in the A-ring, and unsubstituted phenyl in the B-ring. Four of them (1-4) were monomeric flavonoids while the others (5-8) were dimeric flavonoids. The cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells was investigated.

“Background and Purpose: Ureteral stents are being used ex

“Background and Purpose: Ureteral stents are being used exceedingly in the field of urology, and with advancements in endourology, this trend is increasing. Bacterial colonization and proliferation on the stent surface may result in urinary tract infections (UTIs) necessitating the administration of antibiotics that, in turn, may lead to the development

of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Several studies have shown that sustained release varnish (SRV) combined with antibiotics or antiseptics can prevent the proliferation of bacteria on urethral catheters. This is the first study that evaluates this technique implemented on ureteral stents.

Materials and Methods: We evaluated growth inhibition on ureteral stent segments SBC-115076 molecular weight coated with chlorhexidine (CHX) 1% SRV. The tests were conducted using common urinary pathogens: Enterococci, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia coli. Coated stent segments were inserted into bacterial suspensions.

Controls included uncoated stent segments and stents coated with placebo SRV (without CHX).

Results: Bacterial growth measured as turbidity and as colony-forming units showed a significant inhibition PLX3397 cost effect of initial bacteria adhesion to the CHX-SRV coated stent segments compared with the controls (P < 0.001). This inhibitory effect was apparent in each of the bacteria tested and was confirmed by inspection of the stent segments under an electron microscope. In a kinetic experiment using CHX 2% SRV, we were able to prolong the growth inhibition effect from 1 week to nearly 2 weeks.

Conclusions: We believe this technique find more may play a significant role in reducing ureteral stent-associated UTIs. Further studies are needed before this approach can be implemented in clinical practice.”
“An economic liquid growth medium was synthesised for high-rate production of cellular mass, lactic acid and bacteriocin in lactobacilli. Three lactobacilli that are applied extensively in industry-Lactobacillus casei NCIMB 11970,

Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8014, Lactobacillus lactis NCIMB 8586-were chosen to test the medium’s efficiency. These bacteria are chemoorganotrophs requiring rich, complex media for optimum growth. Contrary to the current practice of formulating a strain-specific medium, we attempted to prepare a universal broth that would allow easy formulation and optimisation. Man de Rogosa Sharp (MRS) medium, which can support the growth of lactobacilli, was found unsuitable for use in large quantities due to its high cost of preparation and its use of beef extract and peptone from poultry as nitrogen sources, which are not environmentally friendly and have potential health risks. The developed medium supported the growth of all the three bacteria equally, offering good maximum yields and incorporating only the chemical compounds needed, resulting in an improvement in the growth rate of the bacilli of between 50 % and 241 % compared to the same strains grown on MRS.

Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flax

Many traditional food products including fruits, vegetables, flaxseed, oat, barley, whole

grains, soy and milk have been found to contain component with potential health benefits. Nowadays, functional PFTα foods are used in the prevention and amelioration of several chronic diseases, such as the metabolic syndrome. The relation of the consumption of certain functional foods and the improvement in health status is regulated through health claims. This review focuses on the different features of the metabolic syndrome and the influence of functional foods on these aspects, involving dyslipidemia, improvement of insulin sensitivity, serum lipid profile, antioxidant status, anti-inflammatory status and weight management of humans.”
“Linear Selisistat cost motors find their utilization in an increasing number of industrial applications. Permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSMs) are favorable in many applications due to their servo characteristics, robustness, and high force density. The major disadvantage of moving coil type PMLSMs is the cable slab that energizes the coils from the fixed world to the

moving parts of the machine. These cable slabs introduce extra wear and dynamical distortions. Moreover, in precision application the cable slab is supported by additional linear drives. These disadvantages can be eliminated if the coils could be powered wirelessly. In this paper two topologies are proposed that are capable of transferring 1 kW of power at most. The transformer part of the CET is characterized by means of two dimensional finite

element analysis, and the influence of using additional capacitors to boost the output power is examined. Furthermore, an analysis of the core losses is conducted. Conclusions are drawn from the results. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3074785]“
“Seaweeds MEK activity are a characteristic part of the traditional diet in countries such as Japan and Korea; these countries also have a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome than countries such as the USA and Australia. This suggests that seaweeds may contain compounds that reduce the characteristic signs of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver and inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. Potentially bioactive compounds from seaweeds include polysaccharides, peptides, pigments, minerals and omega-3 fatty acids. This review emphasises current research on these compounds in isolated cells, animal models and patients. Key problems for future research include chemical characterisation of the bioactive principles, defining pharmacological responses in all aspects of the metabolic syndrome, determining if a therapeutic dose has been administered, and defining oral bioavailability of the active ingredients.”
“Neutron reflectometry was used to study the formation and evolution of magnetic domains within a patterned array of NiFe/Cu/Co ellipses.

5% of control group (P < 0 001)

Collins’ sign was

5% of control group (P < 0.001).

Collins’ sign was positive in over half of all patients with cholelithiasis and was useful discriminator in diagnosis of gallstones.”
“The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of local injection of botulinum toxin A for treating axillary osmidrosis. One hundred and fifty patients with axillary osmidrosis were randomly divided to receive botulinum toxin A injection treatment (50U of

botulinum toxin A was injected intracutaneously into 6-20 different sites within each axilla, n=74) or surgical excision of the apocrine glands (n=76). The patients were followed up for 1-3months to analyze the therapeutic effect and complications of the two methods. The curative effect in patients with mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis was not significantly different between the botulinum Sapitinib toxin A injection group and operation group. However, for patients with severe axillary osmidrosis, surgery treatment seemed to be superior to botulinum toxin A treatment (P=0.005). There Nepicastat ic50 was also no significant difference in the modified Dermatology

Life Quality Index between the two treatments. Two cases showed complications related to hemorrhage and incision infection in the operation group. In conclusion, local injection of botulinum toxin A is a safe, fast and effective treatment for mild and moderate axillary osmidrosis, but the long-term effect remains to be further investigated.”
“Patients’ awareness of the increased cardiovascular risk associated with their diabetes is poorly documented.

The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of diabetes complications among patients with diabetes in Ireland.

Patients attending diabetes outpatient clinics in two teaching hospitals in PU-H71 in vivo different regions of the country were invited to complete a questionnaire.

A total of 258 (59.3% male) patients completed the questionnaire; mean age 57.8 years. On questioning, 53.5% reported cardiovascular disease as a potential complication of diabetes, with awareness rates of 61.2, 17.1, 16.3 and 12% for retinopathy, stroke, peripheral vascular

disease and amputation, respectively. Disappointingly, less than half of respondents felt that improvements in diet and exercise could potentially reduce their cardiovascular risk.

Awareness of cardiovascular risk and knowledge of effective measures to reduce this were low in our study and an alternative means of education may need to be considered.”
“The presence of the synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) in waters at low levels is a concern due to its ability to act as an endocrine disruptor. Ozone (O-3) is commonly used in water treatment and reacts with EE2 to form by-products having characteristics that are mostly unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the by-products of E2 and EE2 ozonation and determine their estrogenicity and toxicity relative to the parent compound. Ozonation by-products were identified via LC-MS analysis.

The moderately symptomatic and chronically distressed trajectorie

The moderately symptomatic and chronically distressed trajectories were differentiated only by the strength of psychological resources.

ConclusionsCaregivers of terminally ill cancer patients follow distinct depressive-symptom trajectories while providing end-of-life care. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Ectopic endometriosis is an uncommon disease. Abdominal scar endometriosis is especially rare.

A 38-year-old gravid 1, para 1 woman underwent dilatation and curettage due to an intrauterine infection. During the procedure, uterine perforation occurred and an emergency laparotomy was performed to provide hemostasis and suturing.

Three years later, she complained of pain and swelling at the lower end of her abdominal scar during menstruation. A biopsy of the abdominal scar demonstrated endometriosis. The patient elected to Selleck 5-Fluoracil receive conservative management rather than a surgical procedure. Therefore, hormonal therapy was initiated. The hormonal therapy provided symptomatic relief and reduced the size of the lesion.

We reported an extremely rare case of scar endometriosis after a laparotomy for a uterine perforation that occurred

as a complication of dilatation and curettage. We suggest that hormonal therapy using gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist might Nirogacestat Neuronal Signaling inhibitor be an alternative to surgical treatment for ectopic endometriosis.”
“In situ intercalative polycondensation is applied for the preparation of polyamide (PA) n,6-clay nanocomposites, namely poly(ethylene adipamide) (PA 2,6), poly(hexamethylene adipamide) (PA 6,6), and poly (dodecamethylene adipamide) (PA 12,6). For

this purpose, two different polymerization routes are considered; a low-temperature melt polymerization technique and the conventional solution-melt one. Under the specific experimental conditions, lack of clay exfoliation is detected through XRD measurements, which is proved irreversible even when Dihydrotestosterone clinical trial twin-screw extrusion is attempted as an additional step. The resulting PA n,6-clay structures are found dependent on the diamine moiety length; more specifically, an intrinsic interaction between the polyamide monomer and the organoclay surfactant is indicated. An ion exchange occurs between the two competitive species, that is, diamine and surfactant cations, leading to flocculated clay structures. (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 116: 3291-3302, 2010″
“The current formulation of the Reynolds equation for lubrication problems in the rarefied gas flow regime breaks down when the pressure varies rapidly in the flow direction, which could often happen in the complicated modern hard-disk drive air bearings. In this paper the effect of rapid pressure change in a small distance is examined using a new nonlocal formulation of rarefied Poiseuille flow. The new formulation couples the pressure distribution and the velocity distributions via the Reynolds equation.

Fifty-one different clones were obtained; their sequences were cl

Fifty-one different clones were obtained; their sequences were classified into at least seven different phyla of the Eubacteria group (Proteobacteria – alpha, gamma and delta, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes). Forty percent of the sequences could not be classified into these phyla, demonstrating the genetic diversity of this microbial community. Only eight isolates had sequences similar to known sequences of 16S rRNA of cultivable

organisms or of known environmental isolates and therefore could be identified to the genus level. This method of DNA extraction is a useful tool for analysis of the bacteria responsible for petroleum degradation in contaminated environments.”
“ac-electro-osmosis JQEZ5 supplier is used to concentrate particles on circular gold electrodes. Localization of the concentration of particles is predicted and experimentally observed by slight modifications of the electrical parameters (frequency, voltage intensity). Dinaciclib mouse Efficiency evaluations of the concentrators are proposed and applied to our system and compared with the predictions. Experimental concentration on dedicated test devices is 200 times faster than classical diffusion. An optimization of the collection rate is obtained by switching the frequency

signal between two determined values. This optimization allows doubling the arrival rate of particles.”
“New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a recognized subtype of chronic daily headache with

a unique presentation of a daily headache from onset typically in individuals with minimal or no prior headache history. Various secondary mimics of NDPH have now been documented but at present there has been no association made between primary epilepsy syndromes and new daily persistent-like headaches. A case patient is presented who developed a daily continuous headache from onset who VS-6063 price 3 months after headache initiation had her first generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Further investigation into her history and her specific EEG pattern suggested a diagnosis of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Her NDPH and seizures ceased with epilepsy treatment. Clinically relevant was that the headache was the primary persistent clinical symptom of her JME before the onset of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The current case report adds another possible secondary cause of new daily persistent-like headaches to the medical literature and suggests another association between primary epilepsy syndromes and distinct headache syndromes.”
“Background: Currently available treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can produce mild improvements in cognitive function, behavior, and activities of daily living in patients, but their influence on long-term survival is not well established. This study was designed to assess patient survival and drug efficacy following a 2-year galantamine treatment in patients with mild to moderately severe AD.

Materials and methods: PubMed and Embase were searched for releva

Materials and methods: PubMed and Embase were searched for relevant articles. We calculated sensitivities, specificities, diagnostic odds ratios (DOR), positive likelihood ratios (PLR), negative likelihood Angiogenesis inhibitor ratios (NLR), and constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves using bivariate models for whole-body MRI and skeletal scintigraphy, respectively.

Results: Across 7 studies (332 patients),

whole-body MRI have similar patient-based sensitivity (0.84 vs 0.83), specificity (0.96 vs 0.94), DOR (137.0 vs 70.2), PLR (23.3 vs 13.0) and NLR (0.17 vs 0.19) with skeletal scintigraphy. Area under curves for whole-body MRI and skeletal scintigraphy was 0.94 and 0.89, respectively.

Conclusion: Both whole-body MRI and skeletal scintigraphy have good diagnostic performance for detecting bone metastatic tumors. It remains inconclusive whether whole-body MRI or bone scintigraphy is superior

in detecting bone metastatic tumors. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Approximately 1 year after rats were seized as young adults with lithium (3 mEq/kg) and pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) and given acepromazine or ketamine, 18 blood measures, wet tissue weights, and detailed damage scores for 107 brain structures were completed. Compared with normal and ketamine-treated rats, acepromazine-treated seized rats (total n = 54) had lighter pancreata and spleens and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase blood levels. Even though average damage did not differ, the mosaic of brain PARP signaling damage completely discriminated the two seized groups. Differential effects of postseizure treatment on functions of the thyroid, pancreas, and spleen were indicated. Ketamine-treated seized rats were healthier than acepromazine-treated seized rats or normal rats. This experiment demonstrates the importance of whole-organism assessment and that the single administration of a specific drug after onset of status epilepticus can produce marked differences in the evolution of brain damage

and its influence on specific organs for the rest of the animal’s life. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Study Design. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Constructive Interference in Steady State (CISS) sequence and isometric voxels to demonstrate the anatomic variations of vertebral artery in C2 vertebra.

Objectives. To determine the transarticular screw trajectory on CISS MRI and to identify patients with anatomic variations of vertebral artery in C2 vertebra.

Summary of Background Data. Atlantoaxial transarticular screw fixation has been reported to be biomechanically superior to other posterior techniques for atlantoaxial arthrodesis. Vertebral artery injury can be associated with catastrophic sequelae.

Knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in four patie

Knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in four patients and demonstrated coexistent knee joint synovitis in three. Treatment included targeted corticosteroid injections

into the deep infrapatellar bursa in two cases with complete resolution. One case was treated with corticosteroid injection by an outside health care provider with poor clinical response. Two cases are being treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and methotrexate. Deep infrapatellar bursitis find more can occur as an isolated finding or concurrently with knee joint synovitis in patients with JIA. Awareness of this entity is important because direct injection of the bursa may be needed for treatment, as the bursa does not communicate P005091 ic50 with the knee joint. Furthermore, when bursitis is suspected in JIA, MRI can be helpful to confirm the diagnosis, detect concurrent knee joint synovitis, and exclude other pathologies.”
“Salivary host-defence peptides include defensins, histatins and cathelicidin. We have investigated the effects of these peptides on the microbial composition

of dental plaques. Salivary consortia, established within hydroxyapatite disc models, were exposed during development to physiological levels of human neutrophil proteins (HNP) 1 and 2; human beta defensins (h beta D) 1, 2 and 3; histatins (His) 5 and 8; and cathelicidin (LL37). Effects on aggregation and microbial composition were determined using fluorescence microscopy; and differential culture with PCR-DGGE, respectively. LIVE/DEAD microscopic analysis indicated that HDPs decreased total bacterial viability, whilst beta defensins, paired HNPs, His 5, His 8 and the HDPs combined inhibited bacterial aggregation. According to differential culture, all test HDPs (except His 5) significantly decreased the abundance of Gram-negative anaerobes and lactobacilli (except HNP 2, h beta D 1, paired HNPs and His 5). Combined HNPs and paired h beta D 1 and 3 inhibited streptococci, whereas HNP 1, h beta D 1, h beta D 3, His 5 and LL37 increased streptococcal numbers. According to cluster analyses of DGGE profiles, selleck HDP-exposed plaques were compositionally distinct from undosed controls. Thus, whilst HDPs reportedly

exhibit variable potency against oral bacteria in endpoint susceptibly tests, exposure of nascent plaques can markedly influence bacterial viability, composition and microbial aggregation.”
“It is well established that grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected forages results in reduced BW gain and serum prolactin concentrations of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on blood metabolites, carcass characteristics, and content of proteins critical for AA metabolism in the liver, kidney, and LM tissue of growing steers. Steers grazed a low toxic endophyte (LE; 0.023 mu g/g ergot alkaloids) tall fescue-mixed grass pasture (n = 9; BW = 266 +/- 10.9 kg; 5.

Gene-culture coevolution is

a special case of niche const

Gene-culture coevolution is

a special case of niche construction. Gene-culture coevolution is responsible for human Stem Cell Compound Library cost other-regarding preferences, a taste for fairness, the capacity to empathize and salience of morality and character virtues.”
“The article reports the results of studies on the effect of chitosan (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt %) on thermal and mechanical properties of poly(hydroxybutyrate) composites. The addition of chitosan causes an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) while a decrease in the enthalpy of fusion (?Hfus), crystallization (?Hcry) and percentage of crystallinity as determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The thermogravimetric analysis reveals that high amount of chitosan decreases the thermal stability of the composites. The Young’s modulus of the composite increases and is high for the composite having 40 wt % of chitosan. Increase in the amount of chitosan decreases the elongation at break and impact strength of composites. Finally, the Young’s modulus of the composites SC79 inhibitor has been compared with the theoretical predictions. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“This paper deals with the energetic igniters realized by integrating Al/CuO reactive multilayer films (RMFs) with Cr Films, which could be used in micro-ignition

system. The as-deposited Al/CuO RMFs has been characterized with varied analytical techniques. Results show that distinct Al/CuO RMFs is sputter deposited in a layered geometry, and the Al/CuO RMFs gives a heat of reaction equal to 2760 J/g. The structure of igniter is similar to a capacitor, which may place an electric field

across the igniter and allow the instantaneous large-current to drift through the igniter. Firing characteristics of the igniter were accomplished using constant voltage firing set. The experiment shows that the ignition delay time and total released energy of the igniter discharged in 40 V are 0.7 Adavosertib manufacturer ms and 482.34 mJ, respectively. In addition, the explosion temperature could keep an approximately constant value of 3500 degrees C for 1.4 ms. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3646489]“
“Background: The effectiveness of single-drug antiviral interventions to reduce morbidity and mortality during the next influenza pandemic will be substantially weakened if transmissible strains emerge which are resistant to the stockpiled antiviral drugs. We developed a mathematical model to test the hypothesis that a small stockpile of a secondary antiviral drug could be used to mitigate the adverse consequences of the emergence of resistant strains.

Methods and Findings: We used a multistrain stochastic transmission model of influenza to show that the spread of antiviral resistance can be significantly reduced by deploying a small stockpile (1% population coverage) of a secondary drug during the early phase of local epidemics.