For example, as mentioned above, motor cortex hyperexcitability seen with TMS may reflect compensatory activity in the premotor cortex and SMA to aid voluntary movements.37,41 In addition, brain imaging has suggested two possible forms of reorganization in working and episodic memory, cross hemisphere recruitment (hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults: Veliparib HAROLD)67 and a posterior-anterior shift Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in activation with aging.68 A recent study that used
20 Hz rTMS to disrupt verbal memory processing in left and right prefrontal cortex in elderly subjects provided causal evidence in favor of HAROLD-type compensatory processing.69 In general, TMS may aid both the understanding of compensatory reorganization Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in aging, and also in actively aiding remapping of function, as seen in recovery from stroke.27
A model paradigm for fMRl-guided rTMS in enhancing plasticity in cognitive decline Cell death predominates as the reason for cognitive deficits associated with AD, which may be related to synaptic changes in otherwise intact neural circuitry that leads to decline in normal aging.70 The application of TMS to the appropriate circuitry (guided by brain imaging) may be a useful strategy to strengthen aging circuitry and increase its resilience. However, while longlasting improvements Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical using TMS in post-stroke rehabilitation and in AD cited above are encouraging in this regard, there have been to date no attempts to use TMS to improve cognitive decline in the elderly. On the other hand, TMS has been reported to enhance performance in young adults in a number of tasks affected by aging including choice reaction time,71 picture Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical naming,72 mental rotation of 3-D objects,73 recognition memory,74 and working memory.75
The performance enhancement caused by TMS in these studies was short-lived and lasted on average between 10 and 60 minutes.4,76 There has been some indication that increasing the duration of TMS stimulation may increase the subsequent duration of beneficial cognitive effects.4 Moreover, as reported above, repeated sessions of TMS can result in durable improvements in motor movement post-stroke, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in language function in aphasia, in word recall in AD, and in mood in depression. Likewise, repeated TMS sessions may also prolong the duration of cognitive benefits.5 In addition, beneficial cognitive effects associated with TMS might be prolonged via the interaction of Drug_discovery the stimulation with native cortical mechanisms of plasticity while subjects perform a cognitive task.77 Long-lasting benefits incorporating such an approach have been shown in recovery from stroke,22,23,27 including a successful test of Hebbian-based training and TMS.78 Over a series of studies, we tested whether we could use TMS to boost resilience in a neural network. We did this by selleck catalog creating a temporary working memory (WM) deficit in healthy young adults through sleep deprivation, and attempting to reverse the deficit with TMS.