Word processing and saccade buildup were both modeled by a race t

Word processing and saccade buildup were both modeled by a race to threshold. In both reading and scanning, the network produces realistic distributions of fixation times when compared with human data.”
“The lack of a suitable in vitro hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity model has limited examination of the early stages of the virus-cell interaction. In this study, we used an immortalized cell line derived from human primary hepatocytes, HuS-E/2, to study the mechanism of HBV infection. HBV infection efficiency was markedly increased after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation of the cells. Transmission electron

microscopy demonstrated the presence of intact HBV particles in DMSO-treated HBV-infected HuS-E/2 cells, which could Barasertib in vitro be infected with HBV for up to at least 50 passages. The pre-S1 domain of the large HBsAg (LHBsAg) protein specifically interacted with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of CHC or AP-2 in HuS-E/2 cells significantly reduced their susceptibility to HBV, indicating that both are necessary for HBV infection. Furthermore, HBV entry was inhibited by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. LHBsAg also interfered with the clathrin-mediated

find more endocytosis of transferrin by human hepatocytes. This infection system using an immortalized human primary hepatocyte cell line will facilitate investigations into HBV entry and in devising therapeutic strategies for manipulating HBV-associated liver disorders.”
“Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience

has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from Z-VAD-FMK supplier experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making.

Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instabi

Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association

of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. learn more In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH(2)-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the (111)In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds buy EPZ-6438 in mice. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

The goal of this study was to compare the degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) by three Rhodococcus strains under anaerobic, microaerophilic

(< 0 center dot 04 mg l-1 dissolved oxygen) and aerobic (dissolved oxygen (DO) maintained at 8 mg l-1) conditions.

Methods and Results:

Three Rhodococcus strains were incubated with no, low and ambient concentrations of oxygen in minimal

media with succinate as the carbon source and RDX as the sole nitrogen source. RDX and RDX metabolite concentrations were measured over time. Under microaerophilic conditions, the bacteria degraded RDX, albeit about 60-fold slower than under fully aerobic conditions. Only the breakdown product, 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB) accumulated GDC-0449 datasheet to measurable concentrations under microaerophilic conditions. RDX degraded quickly under both aerated and static aerobic conditions (DO allowed to drop below 1 mg l-1) with the accumulation of both NDAB and methylenedinitramine (MEDINA). No RDX degradation was observed under strict anaerobic conditions.


The Rhodococcus strains did not degrade RDX under strict anaerobic conditions, while slow degradation was observed under microaerophilic conditions. The RDX metabolite NDAB was detected under both microaerophilic and aerobic conditions, while MEDINA was detected only under aerobic conditions.

Impact and Significance of the Study:

This work confirmed the production of MEDINA under aerobic conditions, which has not been previously associated with aerobic RDX degradation by these organisms. More importantly, it demonstrated that aerobic rhodococci are able to degrade RDX under a broader range of oxygen concentrations than previously reported.

We found that cell proliferation is associated with N-sulfated HS

We found that cell proliferation is associated with N-sulfated HS in the OB, RMS, the whole germinal SVZ, and the SCZ. Cell proliferation was weakly associated with N-sulfated HS in the SGL, but the SGL was directly connected to a sub-cortical N-sulfated HS+ extension of the meninges. The NS-sulfated HS+ structures were blood vessels in the OB, RMS and SCZ, and primarily fractones in the SVZ. N-sulfated HS+ fractones, blood vessels and meninges formed a continuum that coursed along the OB, SVZ, RMS, SCZ and SGL, challenging the view that these structures

YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 clinical trial are independent germinal entities. These results support the possibility that a single anatomical system might be globally responsible for mitogenesis and ultimately the production of new neurons and glial cells in the adult brain. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The low yield and poor folding efficiency in vivo of soluble and active recombinant cysteine-rich proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are a major challenge for Repotrectinib concentration large-scale protein production and purification. Expression vectors containing Buthus martensii Karsch insect toxin (BmK IT) fused to the C terminus of the intein Ssp DnaB were constructed

in an attempt to overcome this problem. Following purification and intein self-cleavage, the fusion protein His(6)-intein-IT produced insoluble BmK IT, while intein-IT-His(6) generated soluble and properly folded BmK IT. This result indicated that the positioning selleck chemicals llc of the His(6) tag has a key role in the production of soluble and functional BmK IT. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Cancer cell lines represent in vitro models for studying malignancies, general cell biology, drug discovery and more. Whether they can be considered as exact representative models of the parental tumors remains uncertain given the acquisition of additional ex vivo changes of the cells and the lack of tissue architecture and stroma. Previously, within the EuroBoNeT consortium, we characterized a collection of bone sarcoma cell lines on genomic and proteomic level. Here, we address the phenotypical and functional characterization of the unique

set of osteosarcoma cell lines (n = 19) in vitro and in vivo. For functional analysis of differentiation capacity, cells were stimulated towards osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, all cell lines were injected subcutaneously and intramuscularly into nude mice to assay their in vivo tumor formation capacity as well as for phenotypical analysis of the tumors. All formed tumors were further characterized histologically and immunohistochemically. Out of 19 cell lines, 17 (89%) showed adipogenic differentiation, 13/19 (68%) could differentiate towards osteoblasts and in 6/19 (32%) cell lines chondrogenic differentiation was evident. About half of the cell lines (8/19, 42%) produced tumors in vivo after subcutaneous and intramuscular injections.

His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the

His difficulty in number word comprehension was restricted to the auditory modality, given that with visual stimuli (written words, Arabic numerals and pictures) VE-821 mouse his comprehension of number and

non-number words was intact. While there have been previous reports of selective difficulty or sparing of number words at the semantic and post-semantic levels, this is the first reported case of a pre-semantic deficit that is specific to the category of number words. This constitutes evidence that lexical semantic distinctions are respected by modality-specific neural mechanisms responsible for providing access to the meanings of words. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The E3L gene of vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes the E3 protein that in cultured cells inhibits the activation of interferon (IFN)-induced proteins, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase

(PKR), 2′-5′-oligoadenylate synthetase/RNase L (2-5A system) and adenosine deaminase (ADAR-1), thus helping the virus to evade host responses. Here, we have characterized the in vivo E3 functions in a murine inducible cell culture system (E3L-TetOFF) and in transgenic mice (TgE3L). Inducible E3 expression in cultured cells conferred on cells resistance to the antiviral action of IFN against different viruses, while expression of the E3L gene in TgE3L mice triggered enhanced sensitivity of the animals to pathogens. Virus infection PF-562271 nmr monitored in TgE3L mice by different inoculation routes (intraperitoneal and tail scarification) showed that transgenic mice became

more susceptible to VACV infection than control mice. TgE3L mice were also more susceptible to Leishmania major infection, leading to an increase in parasitemia compared to control mice. The enhanced sensitivity of TgE3L mice to VACV and L. major infections occurred together with alterations in the host immune system, as revealed by decreased T-cell responses to viral antigens in the spleen and lymph nodes and by differences in the levels of specific innate cell populations. MG-132 order These results demonstrate that expression of the E3L gene in transgenic mice partly reverses the resistance of the host to viral and parasitic infections and that these effects are associated with immune alterations.”
“Children with one of two genetic disorders (chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and Turner syndrome) as well typically developing controls, participated in three cognitive processing experiments. Two experiments were designed to test cognitive processes involved in basic aspects numerical cognition. The third was a test of simple manual motor reaction time. Despite significant differences in global intellectual abilities, as measured by IQ tests, performance on the two numerical cognition tasks differed little between the two groups of children with genetic disorders. However, both performed significantly more poorly than did controls.

Here, we report the solution NMR structure of PA1324, a protein o

Here, we report the solution NMR structure of PA1324, a protein of unknown function identified in these studies, and provide a putative biological functional assignment based on the observed prealbumin-like fold and

FAST-NMR ligand screening studies. PA1324 is postulated to be involved in the binding and transport of sugars or polysaccharides associated with the peptidoglycan matrix during biofilm formation.”
“The influenza C virus CM2 protein and a chimeric influenza A virus M2 protein (MCM) containing the CM2 transmembrane domain were assessed Romidepsin for their ability to functionally replace the M2 protein. While all three proteins could alter cytosolic pH to various degrees when expressed from cDNA, only M2 and MCM could at least partially restore infectious virus production to M2-deficient influenza A viruses. The data suggest that while the CM2 ion channel activity is similar to that of M2, sequences in the extracellular and/or cytoplasmic domains play important roles in infectious virus production.”
“Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of U0126 molecular weight the coral holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to coral morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM),

direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in coral algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of coral, macroalgae also directly harm the corals via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream corals, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of coral reefs because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing

near real-time trajectories for a coral reef, a vital metric for conservation and restoration.”
“Nitric Oxide Reductase (NOR) is an integral membrane protein performing the reduction of NO to N(2)O. NOR is composed of two subunits: for the large one (NorB) is a bundle of 12 transmembrane helices (TMH). It contains a b type heme and a binuclear iron site, which is believed to be the catalytic site, comprising a heme b and a non-hemic iron. The small subunit (NorC) harbors a cytochrome c and is attached to the membrane through a unique TMH. With the aim to perform structural and functional studies of NOR, we have immunized dromedaries with NOR and produced several antibody fragments of the heavy chain (VHHs, also known as nanobodies (TM)). These fragments have been used to develop a faster NOR purification procedure, to proceed to crystallization assays and to analyze the electron transfer of electron donors.

Setting regions of interest in the bilateral vestibules and cereb

Setting regions of interest in the bilateral vestibules and cerebellar white matter on 3D-FIESTA, we compared the ratio of the signal intensity (SIR) of the vestibule to that of the cerebellar white matter (SIRv) among the VS, CPAM, and control subject groups. We also compared the ratio of SIRv on the affected side (a-SIRv) to that on the unaffected side (AURv) between the VS and CPAM.

The a-SIRv in the VS group was significantly lower than the overall SIRv in the control subjects (pre-contrast, P < 0.001; post-contrast, P

< 0.001) and the a-SIRv in the CPAM group (pre-contrast, P = 0.001; post-contrast, P = 0.001). The AURv in the VS group was significantly lower than that buy Citarinostat in the CPAM groups (pre-contrast, P < 0.001; post-contrast, P < 0.001).

Decreased vestibular signal intensity on the affected side on 3D-FIESTA

was observed in patients with VS, but not in those with CPAM or in normal subjects. The signal intensity change has the potential to be used in differentiating VS from CPAM.”
“Purpose: We provide an overview of the current landscape of conflicts of interest relevant to urology practitioners and researchers.

Materials and Methods: We conducted an extensive literature review to gather data to define the current state of conflicts of interest in the urological community and beyond.

Results: In this work we examine the history and emergence of conflicts of interest in the public forum. In addition, we elucidate and define the types of conflicts of interest that exist. We examine the effects Ulixertinib mouse of conflicts of interest on practice patterns and on peer reviewed literature. JIB04 in vivo We outline the current conflict of interest policies that exist. Finally, we discuss future trends in the management of conflicts of interest that will be important in the urological community.

Conclusions: Conflicts of interest in the field of urology are prevalent and are becoming increasingly important to manage.”
“In this study, Rv2613c, a protein that is encoded by the

open reading frame Rv2613c in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, was expressed, purified, and characterized for the first time. The amino acid sequence of Rv2613c contained a histidine triad (HIT) motif consisting of H-phi-H-phi-H-phi-phi, where phi is a hydrophobic amino acid. This motif has been reported to be the characteristic feature of several diadenosine 5′,5”’-P-1,P-4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases that catalyze Ap4A to adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) or 2 adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP). However, enzymatic activity analyses for Rv2613c revealed that Ap4A was converted to ATP and ADP, but not AMP, indicating that Rv2613c has Ap4A phosphorylase activity rather than Ap4A hydrolase activity. The Ap4A phosphorylase activity has been reported for proteins containing a characteristic H-X-H-XQ-phi-phi motif. However, no such motif was found in Rv2613c.

Morphologic analysis included measurement of the infarct area, ca

Morphologic analysis included measurement of the infarct area, capillary density, and apoptosis, whereas left ventricular function was measured by means of echocardiographic analysis.

Results: Expression of postinfarct stromal cell-derived factor 1 was increased by 67% in the bone marrow and decreased by 43% in myocardium. Disruption of bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXC chemokine receptor 4 interactions by antibody blockade resulted in a redirection of human hematopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the

ischemic heart and augmented neovascularization and cardiomyocyte survival. Similarly, systemic administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to block CXC chemokine receptor 4/stromal cell-derived factor 1 interaction resulted in increased mobilization and homing of hematopoietic Givinostat cost progenitor cells to the ischemic heart, which translated to augmented myocardial neovascularization, prevention of apoptosis, and improved cardiac function.

Conclusions: Bone marrow stromal cell-derived factor 1 upregulation after myocardial ischemia prevents mobilization of endogenous hematopoietic progenitor cells. We provide evidence that disruption of stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXC chemokine receptor 4 interactions allows redirection of hematopoietic progenitor cells to ischemic myocardium and enhances recovery of left ventricular

function. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;142:687-96)”
“Ongoing investigations into causes and

cures for human movement disorders are important AZD0156 toward the elucidation of diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and dystonia. The use of animal model systems can provide Selonsertib cost links to susceptibility factors, as well as therapeutic interventions. In this regard, the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is ideal for examining age-dependent neurodegenerative disease studies. It is genetically tractable, has a short lifespan, and a well-defined nervous system. Green fluorescent protein is readily visualized in C. elegans because it is a transparent organism, thus the nervous system and factors that alter the viability of neurons can be directly examined in vivo. Through expression of the human PD-associated protein (alpha-synuclein in the worm dopamine neurons), neurodegeneration is observed in an age-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of the early-onset dystonia-related protein torsinA increases vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in C. elegans, because torsinA is located in the ER. Here we provide an overview of collaborative studies we have conducted that collectively demonstrate the usefulness of the nematode model to discern functional effectors of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and ER stress that translate to mammalian data in the fields of PD and dystonia. Taken together, the application of C.

Renal function was significantly worse in allograft compared with

Renal function was significantly worse in allograft compared with isograft recipients. Moreover, the allografts had significantly more advanced tubulointerstitial fibrosis and profound vascular disease characterized by perivascular leukocytic infiltration and neointimal hyperplasia affecting the intrarenal blood vessels. Thus, we describe a feasible and reproducible murine model of intrarenal transplant arteriosclerosis that is useful to study allograft vasculopathy. Kidney International (2012) 82, Omipalisib 1231-1235; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.277; published online 8 August 2012″
“The MRC Centre for Protein Engineering (CPE) hosted and trained many scientists over the years.

It is a unique research environment that shaped the career of many scientists in all aspects. These include research directions and methodologies, but even more important-issues such as how to approach scientific problems and how to manage a research team. Alan Fersht was

the director of the CPE when I joined it as a postdoc in the year 2000. In the current article for the PEDS special CPE issue, I will review how my scientific research and my approach to science developed from the days I arrived to the CPE as a young peptide chemist and throughout the years I spent at the CPE, and how it shaped my current research interests and attitude. I will focus on two major fields: (i) Using peptides to study and modulate the structure and interactions of proteins; (ii) Using quantitative biophysical methods to study

proteins and their interactions at the I-BET151 ic50 molecular level.”
“Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present in postnatal murine cerebellum. The detailed characteristics of these NSCs have never been reported. This study isolated NSC-like cells from postnatal mouse cerebellum. These cells proliferated in response to epidermal growth factor, expressed Various NSC markers, and had selleck screening library the ability to self-renew. Neurosphere assays revealed that these cells could differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, indicating multipotency as NSCs. Although possessing multipotency, most of these cells differentiated into astrocytes spontaneously in vitro. Both ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) facilitated expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and some other characteristics of mature astrocytes by these cells. However, the shape and expression of glutamine transporter GLT-1 of GFAP(+) cells generated in the presence of CNTF or BMP2 differed significantly, suggesting that CNTF and BMP2 induced differentiation of these NSCs into two distinct types of astrocytes. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“HIV-1 replicates poorly in macaque cells, and this had hindered the advancement of relevant nonhuman primate model systems for HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis.

Combinations of mutations further increased the T(m) by as much a

Combinations of mutations further increased the T(m) by as much as an additional 12 degrees C. Introduction of a stability-engineered scFv as part of an IgG-like BsAb enabled scalable production and purification of BsAb with favorable biophysical properties.”
“Organophosphate (OP) neurotoxins have contaminated the environment, contributed to millions of poisoning annually, and have been used as chemical weapons. Biomaterials incorporating the native activity of the OP hydrolase (OPH) enzyme are

of interest for applications including OP sensing, environmental bioremediation and prophylactic decontamination. We have engineered and characterized four novel hydrogel-forming OPH variants buy VX-809 by genetically fusing the OPH enzyme with alpha-helical leucine zipper domains (H), unstructured soluble linker domains (S) and polyhistidine purification tags. The appended H domains form physical cross-links between the this website enzymes and enable self-assembly of the enzymes into hydrogels. The addition of the H and S fusions significantly increased the expression levels of soluble protein. OPH constructs with biterminal H domains form hydrogels at lower protein weight percents and exhibit higher enzymatic activity than those variants modified with a single H domain fusion. Polyhistidine tags were

not useful for purification but they were not benign, as the addition of the 6His tags increased the hydrogel-forming abilities of the proteins with a concomitant reduction in both

the k(cat) and K(M) values. Active enzymatic hydrogels could be made from concentrated unpurified crude protein lysates, significantly simplifying the processing and utilization of the biomaterials. And, a simple proteinaceous bioactive surface coating exhibiting OPH activity is demonstrated. The hydrogels were stable over long-term storage, as activity was retained after cold storage in buffer after 5 months. These new protein constructs AZD5153 price further show the use of rational protein design to create novel, bifunctional, self-assembling units for the formation of catalytic biomaterials.”
“High-throughput generation of antibodies against cellular components is currently a challenge in proteomics, therapeutic development and other biological applications. It is particularly challenging to raise antibodies that target membrane proteins due to their insolubility in aqueous solutions. To address these issues, a yeast display library of human single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) was efficiently screened directly against detergent-solubilized and biotinylated lysates of a target cell line, thereby avoiding issues with membrane protein insolubility and eliminating the need for heterologous expression or purification of antigens. Antibody clones that specifically bind plasma membrane proteins or intracellular proteins were identified, depending on the biotinylation method applied.

Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuropro

Therefore, the present study was designed to explore the neuroprotective role of H2S on Hcy-induced neurodegeneration and neurovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis we employed wild-type (WT) males

ages 8-10 weeks, WT + artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), WT + Hcy (0.5 mu mol/mu l) intracerebral injection (IC, one time only prior to NaHS treatment), WT + Hcy + NaHS (sodium hydrogen sulfide, precursor of H2S, 30 mu mol/kg, body weight). NaHS was injected i.p. once daily for the period of 7 days after the Hcy (IC) injection. Hcy treatment significantly increased malondialdehyde, nitrite level, acetylcholinestrase activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, glial fibrillary acidic protein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, endothelial nitric oxide synthase and decreased glutathione level indicating buy Fedratinib oxidative-nitrosative stress and neuroinflammation as compared to control and aCSF-treated groups. Further, increased click here expression of neuron-specific enolase, S100B and decreased expression of (post-synaptic density-95, synaptosome-associated protein-97) synaptic protein indicated neurodegeneration. Brain sections of Hcy-treated mice showed damage in the cortical

area and periventricular cells. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated, dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells and Fluro Jade-C staining indicated apoptosis and neurodegeneration. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) MMP9, MMP2 and decreased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) TIMP-1, TIMP-2, tight junction proteins (zonula occulden 1)

in Hcy-treated group indicate neurovascular remodeling. Interestingly, NaHS treatment significantly attenuated Hcy-induced oxidative stress, memory deficit, neurodegeneration, neuroinflammation and cerebrovascular remodeling. The results indicate that H2S is effective in providing protection against neurodegeneration Elacridar chemical structure and neurovascular dysfunction. (C) 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Central glutamate neurotransmission has been postulated to play a role in pathophysiology of depression and in the mechanism of antidepressants. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect and the possible mechanism of bupropion, an atypical antidepressant, on endogenous glutamate release in nerve terminals of rat cerebral cortex (synaptosomes). Result showed that bupropion exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-evoked release of glutamate. The effect of bupropion on the evoked glutamate release was prevented by the chelating the intrasynaptosomal Ca(2+) ions, and by the vesicular transporter inhibitor, but was insensitive to the glutamate transporter inhibitor. Bupropion decreased depolarization-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](C), whereas it did not alter the resting synaptosomal membrane potential or 4-AP-mediated depolarization.