For

most of these, their direct connection with ribose me

For

most of these, their direct connection with ribose metabolism is unknown, and is likely an indirect effect. Conclusions The ability to ferment meat and fish is related to the capacity of the bacterium to rapidly take up the available carbohydrates and other components for growth. The importance of this process, especially to the meat industry, stimulates research aimed at understanding the mechanisms for transport and metabolism of these compounds, with the ultimate goal to be able to select improved strains. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses with DNA microarrays efficiently allowed the identification of genes differentially expressed between growth on the two carbohydrates which L. sakei can utilize from these substrates. Moreover, microarrays were a powerful tool to increase the understanding of the bacterium’s primary metabolism and revealed selleck inhibitor a global regulatory mechanism. In summary, the ribose uptake and catabolic machinery is highly regulated at the transcription level, and it is closely linked with catabolism of nucleosides. A global regulation mechanism seems to permit a

fine tuning of KPT-8602 clinical trial the expression of enzymes that control efficient exploitation of available carbon sources. Acknowledgements and funding This work was financially supported by Grant 159058/I10 from the Norwegian Research Council. The authors would like to thank TSA HDAC Monique Zagorec for helpful suggestions and critically reading the manuscript. We also thank Margrete Solheim, Adenosine Mari Christine Brekke, and Signe Marie Drømtorp for their assistance during the experiments, and Hallgeir Bergum, the Norwegian Microarray Consortium (NMC), for printing the microarray slides. Electronic supplementary material Additional file 1: Table S3. Primer and probe sets used for qRT-PCR. Presents

the primer and probe sets used for validation of microarray data by qRT-PCR analysis. Table S4. Comparison of microarray data with qRT-PCR results of L. sakei strain LS 25 grown on ribose compared with glucose. Presents gene regulation values (log2) from the qRT-PCR analysis in comparison with microarray data. (PDF 58 KB) References 1. Hammes WP, Bantleon A, Min S: Lactic acid bacteria in meat fermentation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 1990, 87:165–174.CrossRef 2. Hammes WP, Hertel C: New developments in meat starter cultures. Meat Science 1998, 49:125–138.CrossRef 3. Bredholt S, Nesbakken T, Holck A: Protective cultures inhibit growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in cooked, sliced, vacuum- and gas-packaged meat. Int J Food Microbiol 1999, 53:43–52.PubMedCrossRef 4. Bredholt S, Nesbakken T, Holck A: Industrial application of an antilisterial strain of Lactobacillus sakei as a protective culture and its effect on the sensory acceptability of cooked, sliced, vacuum-packaged meats.

Research grants from Servier R&D and Procter & Gamble No stocks

Research grants from Servier R&D and Procter & Gamble. No stocks or shares in relevant companies. Cyrus Cooper: Received consulting fees and lectured for Amgen, Alliance for Better Bone Health, Eli Lily, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Servier, AZD4547 chemical structure Novartis, and Roche-GSK. Adolfo Diez-Perez: Honoraria: Novartis, Eli Lilly, Amgen, Procter & Gamble, Roche; Expert Witness: Merck; Consultant/Advisory board: Novartis, Eli Lilly, Amgen, Procter buy 4SC-202 & Gamble. Stephen Gehlbach: The Alliance for Better Bone Health

(Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and sanofi-aventis). Susan L Greenspan: Research grant: Lilly, Procter & Gamble, Novartis, Amgen, Zelos; Other research support: Novartis, Wyeth; Honoraria: Procter & Gamble for CME speaking; Consultant/Advisory 3-Methyladenine molecular weight Board: Amgen, Procter & Gamble, Merck. Andrea LaCroix: The Alliance for Better Bone Health (Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and sanofi-aventis). Robert Lindsay: The Alliance for Better Bone Health (Procter & Gamble Pharmaceuticals and sanofi-aventis). J Coen Netelenbos: Research grant: sanofi-aventis, Procter & Gamble; Speakers’ bureau: Procter & Gamble; Honoraria: GP Laboratories; Consultant/advisory board: Procter & Gamble, Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Nycomed. Johannes Pfeilschifter: Research grant: AMGEN, Kyphon, Novartis, Roche; Other research

support: Equipment: GE LUNAR; Speakers’ bureau: AMGEN, sanofi-aventis, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Lilly Deutschland, Orion Pharma, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Merckle, Nycomed, Procter & Gamble; Advisory Board membership: Novartis, Roche, Procter & Gamble, TEVA. Christian Roux: Honoraria: Alliance, Amgen, Lilly, Merck

Sharp and Dohme, Novartis, Nycomed, Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Servier, Wyeth; Consultant/Advisory board: Alliance, Amgen, Lilly, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Amino acid Novartis, Nycomed, Roche, GlaxoSmithKline, Servier, Wyeth. Kenneth G Saag: Speakers’ bureau: Novartis; Consulting Fees or other remuneration: Eli Lilly & Co., Merck, Novartis, Amgen, Roche, Proctor & Gamble, sanofi-aventis; Paid research: Eli Lilly & Co, Merck, Novartis, Amgen, Prector & Gamble, sanofi-aventis; Advisory Committee or other paid committee: Eli Lily & Co. Philip Sambrook: Honoraria: Merck, sanofi-aventis, Roche, Servier; Consultant/Advisory board: Merck, sanofi-aventis, Roche, Servier. Stuart Silverman: Research grants: Wyeth, Lilly, Novartis, Alliance; Speakers’ bureau: Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, Procter & Gamble; Honoraria: Procter & Gamble; Consultant/Advisory Board: Lilly, Amgen, Wyeth, Merck, Roche, Novartis. Ethel S Siris: Speakers’ bureau: Lilly, Merck, Procter & Gamble, sanofi-aventis, Novartis. Nelson B Watts: Stock options/holdings, royalties, company owner, patent owner, official role: none. Amgen: speaking, consulting, research support (through the university). Eli Lilly: consulting, research support (through the university). Novartis: speaking, consulting, research support (through the university).

02 pH 6 87 (±0 11) 7 26 (±0 11)

<0 01 Rate of Bleeding (R

02 pH 6.87 (±0.11) 7.26 (±0.11)

<0.01 Rate of Bleeding (RBC/hr) 4 (±1.5) 3 (±1.7) 0.03 Time to rFVIIa (hr) 3.7 (±2.2) 6.2 (4.5) 0.04 rFVIIa Dose (ug/Kg) 89 (±43) 116 (±79) 0.14 > 1 rFVIIa doses (%) 9 33 0.05 Values are presented as mean (±SD) or median (IQR – Interquartile Range) when appropriate. ISS, injury severity score; AIS, abbreviated injury scale; INR, international normalized ratio; RBC/hr, units of red blood cells per hour in the first 6 hrs of admission; Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 A comparison of mortality between the two groups is shown in Table 2. Of the 11 severely acidotic (pH ≤ 7.02) patients in the last resort group, all (100%) died. Of the 60 less acidotic (pH > 7.02) patients in the

non-last resort group, 26 (43%) died. Table 2 pH https://www.selleckchem.com/p38-MAPK.html & In-hospital Mortality   Alive Dead Hospital Mortality pH > 7.02 (n=60) 34 26 43% pH ≤ 7.02 (n=11) 0 11 100% Sensitivity 100% (34/34) Specificity 30% (11/37) (PPV) 57% (34/60) (NPV) 100% (11/11) PPV, positive predictive value; NPV, negative predictive value learn more The vast majority, 72% of rFVIIa-treated patients received only 1 dose, while 24% received 2 doses, and 4% received 3 doses after being admitted to the hospital. The first dose was administered after a median time interval of 4.5h (2.7, 7.7). Repeated doses were administered after an average time interval of 2.3h. This indicated that as the patient’s condition deteriorated, more doses of rFVIIa were administered in an expedited fashion. The median initial dose was 85.7µg/kg (61.6, 102.8). This was also the overall median dosage, as most patients only received 1 dose. Of note, a transfusion medicine specialist at SHSC approved the use of rFVIIa as a final alternative when all potential interventions

failed. In the years 2000 and 2001, low doses of 17.1µg/kg of rFVIIa were administered after patients received more than 20 units of RBCs. However, following a supportive randomized control trial on rFVIIa in trauma [8], fewer units of RBCs were noted to be transfused prior to rFVIIa administration and more doses of rFVIIa were given from 2002 onwards. The total cost of administrating sufficient doses of rFVIIa to the 11 patients as a last resort was AP26113 mouse approximately $75,162 (CA). This monetary cost was measured Gefitinib ic50 solely based on the amounts of doses of rFVIIa given and excluded other expenditures associated with the administration of the drug. In the United States of America, a low dose (1,200 µg or 17.1µg/kg on a 70 kg average adult) of rFVIIa is the smallest available unit dose that costs approximately the same as 8 units of plasma [23]. The price of one unit of plasma is approximately $120 (USD), including expenditures related to administering them [23]. Discussion Over the last decade, rFVIIa has been explored as a potential treatment for many coagulopathic states other than congenital conditions and hemophilias [7, 11, 24] .

44-0141, a = 9 7847, c = 2 863) The cell volume of caddice-clew-

44-0141, a = 9.7847, c = 2.863). The cell volume of caddice-clew-like MnO2 is 273.97 Å3 which is also highly identical to the standard

values (274.1 Å3),while the lattice parameters of urchin-like MnO2 are a = 9.8084 and c = 2.8483. According to the standard values, the crystal cell expands in a and b directions and contracts in c direction. The cell volume of urchin-like MnO2 is 274.02 Å3. The average size of the caddice-clew-like MnO2 crystal grains is calculated to be 32 nm according to the Scherrer equation D = Kλ/βcosθ using the strongest diffraction peak of (211) [D is crystal grain size (nm), K is the Scherrer constant (0.89), λ is the X-ray selleck chemical wavelength (0.154056 nm) for Cu Kα, β is the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the peak (211), and θ is the angle of diffraction peak],while the measured diameter of caddice-clew-like MnO2 is 53 nm. The average size of the urchin-like MnO2 crystal grains is calculated to be 51 nm according to the Scherrer www.selleckchem.com/products/Cyt387.html equation. The measured diameter of the short nanorods on urchin-like MnO2 is about 50 nm. As can be seen, the calculated crystallite size value of caddice-clew-like MnO2 crystal is a little smaller than the measured

value, but the calculated crystallite size value of urchin-like MnO2 crystal is identical. Although the MnO2 micromaterials are in micrometer scale, they are confirmed to assemble by nanomaterials. Consequently, although the two MnO2 micromaterials are with identical crystal structure, they may have some difference in the electrochemical Selleck Fedratinib GPX6 performance as the urchin-like MnO2 has the expanded lattice parameters. Figure 3 The XRD patterns of MnO 2 materials. (a) Caddice-clew-like and (b) urchin-like MnO2 samples. Electrochemical performance Figure 4 presents the typical charge-discharge voltage curves

of the anodes (compared to the full battery) constructed from MnO2 micromaterials at 0.2 C rate in the voltage range of 0.01 to 3.60 V (vs. Li/Li+). For clarity, only selected cycles are shown. As shown, the two α-MnO2 micromaterials both have high initial discharge specific capacity as approximately 1,400 mAh g−1, while the theoretical discharge specific capacity is 1,232 mAh g−1. The extra discharge specific capacities of the as-prepared MnO2 micromaterials may result from the formation of solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer which is known as a gel-like layer, containing ethylene oxide-based oligomers, LiF, Li2CO3, and lithium alkyl carbonate (ROCO2Li), during the first discharging process [29]. The discharge specific capacities of the as-prepared MnO2 micromaterials in the second cycle are 500 mAh g−1(caddice-clew-like MnO2) and 600 mAh g−1 (urchin-like MnO2), respectively. There is an attenuation compared to the initial discharge capacity. After the fifth cycling, the discharge specific capacities of the as-prepared MnO2 micromaterials are 356 mAh g−1 (caddice-clew-like MnO2) and 465 mAh g−1 (urchin-like MnO2), respectively.

CrossRef 17 Ojeda R, de Paz JL, Barrientos AG, Martín-Lomas M, P

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A, Keilholz U, Scheibenbogen Paclitaxel price C: Evaluation of the interferon-gamma ELISPOT-assay for quantification of peptide specific T lymphocytes from peripheral blood. J Immunol Methods 1997, 210:167–174.CrossRef 25. Overwijk WW, Theoret MR, Finkelstein SE, Surman DR, de Jong LA, Vyth-Dreese FA, Dellemijn TA, Antony PA, Spiess PJ, Palmer DC, Heimann DM, Klebanoff CA, Yu Z, Hwang LN, Feigenbaum L, Kruisbeek AM, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP: Tumor regression and autoimmunity after reversal of a functionally tolerant state of self-reactive CD8+ T cells. J Exp Med 2003, 198:569–580.CrossRef 26. Abbas AK, Lichtman AH: Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2006. 27. Moon JJ, Suh H, Bershteyn A, Stephan MT, Liu H, Huang B, Sohail M, Luo S, Ho Um S, Khant H, Goodwin JT, Ramos J, Chiu W, Irvine DJ: Interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles as synthetic vaccines for potent humoral and cellular immune responses. Nat Mater 2011, 10:243–251.CrossRef 28. Good NE, Winget GD, Winter W, Connolly TN, Izawa S, Singh RMM: Hydrogen ion buffers for biological research. Biochemistry 1966, 5:467–477.CrossRef 29. Hermanson GT: Bioconjugate Techniques. Waltham: Academic Press; 2008.

J Bacteriol 176:32–43PubMedCentralPubMed Eraso JM, Kaplan S (1995

J Bacteriol 176:32–43PubMedCentralPubMed Eraso JM, Kaplan S (1995) Oxygen-insensitive synthesis of the photosynthesis membranes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: a mutant histidine kinase. J Bacteriol 177:2695–2706PubMedCentralPubMed Eraso JM, Roh JH, Zeng X, Callister SJ, Lipton MS, Kaplan S (2008) Role of the global transcriptional regulator PrrA in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1: combined transcriptome and proteome analysis. J Bacteriol 190:4831–4848PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Fedotova Y (2010) Analysis of the role of PrrA, PpsR, and FnrL in

intracytoplasmic membrane differentiation of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 using transmission electron microscopy. MS Thesis, Bowling Green State University Gomelsky M, Kaplan S (1995) this website Isolation of regulatory mutants in photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 and partial complementation of a PrrB mutant by the HupT histidine-kinase. Microbiology 141:1805–1819PubMedCrossRef Gomelsky M, Kaplan S (1997) H 89 Molecular genetic analysis suggesting interactions between AppA and PpsR in regulation of photosynthesis gene expression in Rhodobacter click here sphaeroides 2.4.1. J Bacteriol 179:128–134PubMedCentralPubMed Gomelsky M, Zeilstra-Ryalls JH (2013) The living genome of a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium:

overview of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides transcriptome landscapes. In: Beatty JT (ed) Genome evolution of photosynthetic bacteria, vol 66, 1st edn. Academic Press, San Diego Gomelsky however L, Moskvin O, Stenzel R, Jones D, Donohue T, Gomelsky M (2008) Hierarchical regulation of photosynthesis gene expression by the oxygen-responsive PrrBA and AppA-PpsR systems of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol 190:8106–8114PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Hunter C, Pennoyer J, Sturgis J, Farrelly D, Niederman R (1988) Oligomerization states and associations of light-harvesting pigment protein complexes of Rhodobacter sphaeroides as analyzed by lithium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Biochemistry 27:3459–3467CrossRef Karnovsky M (1965) A formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde fixative of high osmolarity for use in electron microscopy. J Cell Biol 27:137A–138A

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Still, in some experiments the promoter activity was abolished wh

Still, in some experiments the promoter activity was abolished while others showed only a low activity – a finding that deserves further attention. In this paper we have shown that the part of the hupSL promoter region that gave the highest expression level is limited to a 316 bp DNA fragment stretching from -57 (in relation to tsp) to the translation start site (Fig. 4). Not only does this short promoter confer a high MK-0457 manufacturer transcription level, it also retains

heterocyst specificity. A loss of heterocyst specificity could have lead to a misleading conclusion of high promoter activity: www.selleckchem.com/products/ABT-263.html the promoter would have shown high total expression, due to expression in all cells, even if the promoter activity was still low. However the fact that this promoter fragment kept heterocyst specificity (Fig. 5) enables us to draw the conclusion that the activity of the shortest promoter is truly higher than for the other promoter fragments. One assumption could be that heterocyst specificity of expression is due to a transcription factor binding to the hupSL promoter

and stimulating transcription in heterocysts. However, another possibility could be that hupSL is constitutively LCL161 transcribed and that vegetative cells contain a repressor lacking in heterocysts which restrain transcription in that cell type. If the heterocyst specificity is mediated by an activator binding the short promoter sequence upstream the tsp (or perhaps the untranslated leader region downstream the tsp) or by a repressor only present in vegetative cells needs to be subjected to further investigations. Further characterization of

this short promoter region will not only give information about what promotes hupSL transcription but can also help answering the question what directs heterocyst specific expression of genes and pattern formation in N. punctiforme, and perhaps other heterocystous, filamentous cyanobacteria. Conclusion The result that the 57 bp promoter is a highly active promoter is most interesting and will be investigated further. This short DNA sequence, and its 258 bp untranslated leader region Dipeptidyl peptidase downstream the tsp, appears to harbour enough information to make the transcription to occur in heterocysts only. Taken one step further, if this information conferring heterocyst specific transcription can be elucidated it will give clues to what signals are involved in heterocyst specific gene expression and pattern formation in filamentous cyanobacteria. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Nordic Energy Research Program (project BioH2), EU/NEST FP6 project BioModularH2 (contract # 043340) and the EU/Energy FP7 project SOLAR-H2 (contract # 212508). References 1. Tamagnini P, Axelsson R, Lindberg P, Oxelfelt F, Wunschiers R, Lindblad P: Hydrogenases and hydrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2002,66(1):1–20.PubMedCrossRef 2.

Am J Reprod Immunol 2011, 66:534–543 PubMedCrossRef

Am J Reprod Immunol 2011, 66:534–543.PubMedCrossRef QNZ mouse 59. Darville T, Hiltke TJ: Pathogenesis of genital tract disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis. J Infect Dis 2010, 201(2):S114–S125.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contribution BD performed the experiments, acquired, analyzed and interpreted the data, and drafted the manuscript. FN and ADW: made substantial contributions to the conception and design of experiments,

interpretation of results, and drafted and critically revised the manuscript. JT and HH made substantial contributions to the conception and design of experiments. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background

Approximately 20% of healthy adults are persistent nasal carriers of S. aureus and 60% harbour it intermittently. Such carriers have been shown to participate in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of S. aureus Compound C in vivo infections and are a potential source of outbreaks especially in hospital settings [1,2]. Nasal carriers are at an increased risk of acquiring surgical site infections, foreign body infections and bacteremias [3,4]. Although nasal colonisation with MRSA is low but such carriers are a major threat factor for themselves (through auto-infection/endogenous source) as well as can disseminate these highly resistant strains that pose serious difficulty in Small molecule library datasheet treatment thereafter. The current treatment strategies for nasal decolonisation rely on the use of topical antibiotics such as bacitracin, fusidic acid, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin [5]. However, emergence of resistant strains has led to treatment failures. Mupirocin is another potent anti-MRSA agent which has been found to be effective in decolonising the nares. Long term studies

have however, shown that there is an initial clearance of bacteria from nares following mupirocin treatment but re-colonization takes place after 3 months [6,7]. The rapid emergence of resistance to mupirocin therefore calls for search for alternative options. Phage therapy has been shown to be a potential alternative treatment for treating various S. aureus infections [8-13]. Hence, an alternative Montelukast Sodium or supplement to antibiotic therapy, is the use of bacterial viruses (phage/bacteriophage) to target MRSA colonisation in the anterior nares of the affected population. However, there is comparatively limited work published on the use of phages as nasal decolonising agents as compared to their proven therapeutic potential in other infections. Moreover, the combined application of phage and antibiotic in eliminating the nasal load of S. aureus has not been looked into earlier studies. Combination therapy (use of two different agents) represents an attractive option for nasal decolonisation due to its ability to check emergence of resistant mutants [13,14].

Lack of this knowledge has restricted the design of new metallic

Lack of this knowledge has restricted the design of new metallic glasses with specific properties to the costly and inefficient method of trial and error. The properties of the MG can also be related to those of the building blocks (metal RG7112 clusters). The latter contains valuable information on CAMs, including but not limited to the stability of single clusters once in contact with other clusters and the interaction among clusters. This knowledge, on the other hand, can be very useful in designing new cluster-assembled materials. Figure 2 The proposed hypothesis and its implications are summarized.

Nanofabrication of cluster-assembled metallic glasses followed by comparisons among properties of alloy clusters, CAMGs, and conventional metallic glasses can lead to understanding of the structure–property relation in amorphous materials and pave the way to the production of other cluster-assembled materials. Acknowledgements This work was partially supported by The Royal Society in the form of a Newton International Fellowship. References 1. Sanchez A, Abbet S, Heiz U, Schneider WD,

Hakkinen H, Barnett RN, Landman U: When gold is not noble: nanoscale gold catalysts. J Phys Chem A 1999, 103:9573–9578.CrossRef 2. Heiz U, Landman Vistusertib U: Nanocatalysis. 1st edition. Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.CrossRef 3. Deheer WA: The physics of simple metal-clusters – experimental aspects and simple-models. Rev Mod Phys 1993, 65:611–676.CrossRef 4. Schmidt M, Kusche R, von Issendorff B, Haberland H: Irregular variations in the

selleck screening library melting point of size-selected atomic clusters. Nature 1998, 393:238–240.CrossRef 5. Harding D, Ford MS, Walsh TR, Mackenzie SR: Dramatic size effects and evidence of structural isomers in the reactions of rhodium clusters, Rh-n(+/−), with nitrous oxide. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2007, 9:2130–2136.CrossRef 6. Perez A, Melinon P, Dupuis V, Jensen P, Prevel B, Tuaillon J, Bardotti L, Martet C, Treilleux M, Broyer M, Pellarin M, Vaille JL, Palpant B, Lerme J: Cluster assembled materials: a novel class of nanostructured solids with original structures and properties. J Phys D: Appl Phys 1997, 30:709–721.CrossRef 7. Claridge SA, Castleman AW, Khanna SN, Murray Isoconazole CB, Sen A, Weiss PS: Cluster-assembled materials. ACS Nano 2009, 3:244–255.CrossRef 8. Yong Y, Song B, He P: Cluster-assembled materials based on M12N12 (M = Al, Ga) fullerene-like clusters. Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011, 13:16182–16189.CrossRef 9. Klement W, Willens RH, Duwez P: Non-crystalline structure in solidified gold-silicon alloys. Nature 1960, 187:869–870.CrossRef 10. Axinte E: Metallic glasses from “alchemy” to pure science: present and future of design, processing and applications of glassy metals. Mater Des 2012, 35:518–556.CrossRef 11. Huang JC, Chu JP, Jang JSC: Recent progress in metallic glasses in Taiwan. Intermetallics 2009, 17:973–987.CrossRef 12. Inoue A, Takeuchi A: Recent development and application products of bulk glassy alloys.

The wavelength of an incident light was 904 nm, which is the same

The wavelength of an incident light was 904 nm, which is the same as the wavelength of the laser used in μ-PCD measurement. Moreover, Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, Auger recombination, and band-to-band recombination were taken into account, and the surface recombination was neglected for simplification. Figure 2 The schematic diagram of the calculation model. Table 1 Physical parameters for lifetime estimation based on our simple calculation model and PC1D Symbol Parameter Silicon nanowire Bulk silicon d, W Length,

thickness 10 μm 190 μm Ε Dielectric constant 11.4 11.4 Eg Energy gap (eV) 1.12 1.12 χ Electron affinity (eV) 4.05 4.05 Dt Trap level 0 0 τ e0, τ h0 Carrier lifetime 0.05 to 1.5 μs 1 ms μ e Electron mTOR inhibitor mobility (cm2/(Vs)) 1,104 1,104 μ h Hole mobility (cm2/(Vs)) 424.6 424.6 N A Accepter concentration (cm−3) 1 × 1016 1 × 1016 Results and discussion The decay curve of SiNW arrays fabricated

by MACES was successfully obtained from μ-PCD measurement, as shown in Figure 3a. From Figure 3b, we confirmed that the decay curve consisted of two components, which were fast-decay and slow-decay components. At present, the origin of the second slow-decay component is not clear. A possible explanation is www.selleckchem.com/products/mm-102.html that the slow decay originates from minority carrier trapping effect at the defect states on the surface of the SiNW arrays. As a result of fitting to exponential attenuation function, the τ eff of the SiNW arrays on the Si wafers is found to be 1.6 μs. This low τ eff reflects the large surface recombination velocity at the surface of the SiNW arrays because we used high-quality crystalline silicon wafer as starting materials. Thalidomide To improve τ eff, passivation films were deposited on the SiNW arrays. In the case

of the a-Si:H passivation film, τ eff was not improved since only a small part of the SiNW arrays was covered with the a-Si:H film. The a-Si:H thin film was deposited only on top of the SiNW array owing to the high density of SiNWs as shown in Figure 4. This reason can be explained according to the studies of Matsuda et al., in which they reported about the deposition of a-Si:Hon trench structure by PECVD [34, 35]. The concentration of precursors related with a silane gas decreased as their position on the SiNW moved farther from the plasma region, suggesting that the precursors could not reach the bottom of the SiNWs. That is why the a-Si:H thin film was deposited only on top of the SiNW array. In fact, the interspace between our fabricated SiNWs could not be embedded owing to the very narrow gap at around 20 nm. On the other hand, in the case of SiNW arrays covered with the as-deposited Al2O3 film, the τ eff Selleck Citarinostat increased to 5 μs. That is because the surface of the SiNW arrays was successfully covered with Al2O3. In Figure 5a, the cross-sectional SEM images of the SiNW array before and after the deposition of an Al2O3 passivation film are shown.