inornata. Body areas sampled included 6 locations from the fish epaxial and hypaxial muscles and 1 from each of the adductor mandibulae (cheek muscle), the cranial epaxial muscle, and the muscle of the caudal peduncle. Replicate samples were weighed and the number of plasmodia in each was recorded to determine the average density of plasmodia per gram of muscle in each area. The average density of plasmodia among fish was highly variable and was not correlated with fish size, age, or the homogeneity of distribution. Although the anterior hypaxial muscle (belly flap) was significantly more infected and the caudal peduncle less infected, when compared to all other areas examined in all fish combined,
10 out of 15 fish displayed an otherwise homogeneous distribution when data were analyzed fish by fish. Among the 5 fish with a nonuniform plasmodia distribution, 3 had a significantly higher burden in the belly flap, 1 in the area just posterior Tariquidar research buy to the belly flap, and 1 in the cheek muscle. Based on these results, it was determined that hypaxial, caudal peduncle, and cheek muscles CCI-779 contributed greatly to the overall variation in plasmodia distribution observed whereas any portion of the epaxial muscle, as well
as the cranial muscle, would be the least-variable areas to sample to determine the status of infection in any given fish.”
“The cause of fracture of the femoral neck after hip resurfacing is poorly understood. In order to evaluate the role of avascular necrosis we compared 19 femoral heads retrieved at revision for fracture of the femoral neck and 13 retrieved for other reasons.\n\nWe developed a new technique of assessing avascular necrosis in the femoral head by determining the percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae present. Femoral heads retrieved as controls at total hip replacement for
osteoarthritis and avascular necrosis had 9% (SD 4; n = 13) and 85% (SD 5; n = 10, p < 0.001) empty lacunae, respectively.\n\nIn the fracture group the percentage of empty lacunae was 71% (SD 22); in the other group it was 21% (SD 13). The differences between find more the groups were highly significant (p < 0.001).\n\nWe conclude that fracture after resurfacing of the hip is associated with a significantly greater percentage of empty osteocyte lacunae within the trabecular bone. This indicates established avascular necrosis and suggests that damage to the blood supply at the time of surgery is a potent risk factor for fracture of the femoral neck after hip resurfacing.”
“Background and objectives Mortality from cardiovascular disease in the Middle East (ME) is projected to increase substantially by 2020. There are no large studies on the impact of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the region. This is a report on the association of nine risk factors with AMI in the ME. Methods and results As part of the INTERHEART (IH) study, we enrolled 1364 cases of first AMI and 1525 matching controls from eight ME countries.
European authors in 2007 indicate that lavetiracetam, lamotrigine and gabapentin were first line drugs, followed by topiramate and valproate in elderly patients. Oxcarbazepine and carbamazepine were not highly recommended because of the associated hyponatremia, cardiac disorders and interaction potentials. The standard antiepileptic drug for focal epilepsy is
still carbamazepine, and valproate is most commonly used for generalized epilepsy- even in older patients. Epidemiological studies on epilepsy treatment in the elderly show steady increase in the number of patients. Therefore, elderly patients require special attention. Monotherapy in low doses is often sufficient, enzyme inducing drug are used too frequently.”
“West SC79 datasheet Nile virus
(WNV) is a flavivirus that causes neurological disorders in less than 1 % of infected subjects. Human cases of WNV-associated fever and/or neurological disorders have been reported in Italy since 2008. The first outbreak occurred in the northeastern region of Italy surrounding the Po River and was caused by the Po River lineage 1 strain, and since then, WNV infections have been reported in several regions of central Italy. Although the virus is highly genetically conserved, stochastic mutations in its genome may lead to the emergence of new strains, as was observed in Italy in 2011 with the identification of two
age 1 strains, the WNV Piave and WNV Livenza strains. To help further define WNV epidemiology in Italy, we describe a case of an Italian man living in the Po River area who developed TH-302 concentration fatal encephalitis in 2009 due to infection with the WNV Piave strain. This finding supports the notion that the Piave strain has been circulating
in this area of Italy for 2 years longer than was previously believed.”
“The tobacco-specific lung carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) forms DNA methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. In this study, the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in the repair of pyridyloxobutyl adducts AZD6094 in vitro was assessed using an in vitro NER assay with pyridyloxobutylated plasmid DNA. Nuclear extracts from NER-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells, XPA and XPC, were less active at repairing pyridyloxobutyl adducts than were extracts from normal cells, while combining NER-deficient extracts reconstituted activity. Also, NER-deficient cells were more susceptible to NNKOAc-induced cytotoxicity than were normal cells. Results demonstrate a role for NER in the repair of NNK-induced pyridyloxobutylation. (C) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“At the early stage of drug discovery, thousands of new chemical entities (NCEs) may be screened before a single candidate can be identified for development.
of the results to a simple screening scenario showed that, compared to fecal blood testing, pre-colonoscopy GF120918 nmr screening using serum CRC-446 levels would require 80% fewer colonoscopies, would identify risk in subjects under the age of 50, and would result in increased numbers of early cases detected. The precise role these serum metabolites play in the aetiology of cancer development remains to be determined.”
“Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is supposed to induce fewer nutritional deficiencies than gastric bypass (GBP). However, few studies have compared nutritional status after these two procedures, and the difference in weight loss (WL) between procedures may alter the results. Thus, our aim was to compare nutritional LOXO-101 in vivo status after SG and GBP in subjects matched for postoperative weight. Forty-three subjects who underwent SG were matched for age, gender, and 6-month postoperative weight with 43 subjects who underwent GBP. Dietary intakes (DI), metabolic (MP), and nutritional parameters (NP) were recorded before and at 6 and 12 months after both procedures. Multivitamin supplements were systematically prescribed after surgery. Before surgery, BMI, DI, MP, and NP were similar between both groups. After surgery, LDL cholesterol, serum prealbumin, vitamin B12,
urinary calcium, and vitamin D concentrations were lower after GBP than after SG, whereas WL and DI were similar after both procedures. However,
the total number of deficiencies did not increase after surgery regardless of the procedure. In addition, we found a significant increase in liver enzymes and a greater decrease in C-reactive LBH589 order protein after GBP. In conclusion, during the first year after surgery, in patients with the same WL and following the same strategy of vitamin supplementation, global nutritional status was only slightly impaired after SG and GBP. However, some nutritional parameters were specifically altered after GBP, which could be related to malabsorption or other mechanisms, such as alterations in liver metabolism.”
“Acrosome reaction is crucial to the penetration of spermatozoa through the zona pellucida (ZP). Glycosylation of ZP glycoproteins is important in spermatozoa-ZP interaction. Human ZP glycoprotein-3 (ZP3) is believed to initiate acrosome reaction. Recently, human ZP4 was also implicated in inducing acrosome reaction. These studies were based on recombinant human ZP proteins with glycosylation different from their native counterparts. In the present study, the effects of native human ZP3 and ZP4 on acrosome reaction and spermatozoa-ZP binding were investigated. Native human ZP3 and ZP4 were immunoaffinity-purified. They induced acrosome reaction and inhibited spermatozoa-ZP binding time- and dose-dependently to different extents.
This, in turn, led to a substantial decrease in surface receptor signaling. Finally, we showed that treatment of primary neurons with the ECE2 inhibitor during recycling led to increased intracellular co-localization of the receptors and ECE2, which in turn led to decreased receptor recycling and signaling by the surface receptors. Together, these results support a role for differential modulation of opioid receptor signaling by post-endocytic
processing of peptide agonists by ECE2.”
“Aims/hypothesis Although much is known about the pathophysiological processes contributing to diabetic Napabucasin in vivo retinopathy (DR), the role of protective pathways has received less attention. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (also known as NFE2L2 or NRF2) is Repotrectinib an important regulator of oxidative stress and also has anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study was to explore the potential role of NRF2 as a protective mechanism in DR. Methods Retinal expression of NRF2 was investigated in human donor and
mouse eyes by immunohistochemistry. The effect of NRF2 modulation on oxidative stress was studied in the human Muller cell line MIO-M1. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic wild-type and Nrf2 knockout mice were evaluated for multiple DR endpoints. Results NRF2 was expressed prominently in Muller\\ glial cells and astrocytes in both human and mouse retinas. In cultured MIO-M1 cells, NRF2 inhibition significantly decreased antioxidant gene expression and exacerbated tert-butyl hydroperoxide-and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. NRF2 activation strongly increased
NRF2 target gene expression and suppressed oxidant-induced reactive oxygen species. Diabetic mice exhibited retinal NRF2 activation, indicated by nuclear translocation. Superoxide levels were significantly increased ISRIB ic50 by diabetes in Nrf2 knockout mice as compared with wild-type mice. Diabetic Nrf2 knockout mice exhibited a reduction in retinal glutathione and an increase in TNF-a protein compared with wild-type mice. Nrf2 knockout mice exhibited early onset of blood-retina barrier dysfunction and exacerbation of neuronal dysfunction in diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation These results indicate that NRF2 is an important protective factor regulating the progression of DR and suggest enhancement of the NRF2 pathway as a potential therapeutic strategy.”
“The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1 x PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma.
To test this we analysed N-15 incorporation into microbial biomass, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) composition and C-13 incorporation into the PLFAs of specific Napabucasin supplier microbial groups in soil under white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L) following leaf-labelling with C-13-bicarbonate and N-15-urea. In this way microbial N and N-15 and the composition of PLFAs reflect the medium-term (two months) response
of microorganisms to rhizodeposits, whereas the C-13-label of the PLFAs reflects the short-term (one week) utilisation of root exudates following labelling of shoots. In the medium term, microbial biomass N and N-15 were greater under the ryegrass, whereas total PLFA was higher under white clover. The relative abundance of fungi and actinomycetes was unaffected
by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (C-13-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass exudates initially to be incorporated into bacterial PLFA and into fungi over time, but surprisingly fungi had TPX-0005 cost the highest utilisation of ryegrass-derived C over the week. At 0-5 cm soil depth, white clover exudates were utilised only by bacteria, whereas fungi dominated at 5-15 cm. This reflects differences in the quality of white clover exudates or differences in the microbial community composition at the two depths. We conclude that despite clear short-term differences Selleckchem ISRIB in microbial response to the exudates of white clover and ryegrass, this is only to a limited extent transferred into medium-term defects on the composition of the microbial communities under the two plant species. Hence, our study showed that different
short-term C utilisation patterns may lead to similar medium-term responses of the microbial community. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A small, but important, percentage of breast cancer cases is caused by the inheritance of a single copy of a mutated gene. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the genes most commonly associated with inherited breast cancer; however, mutations in TP53 and PTEN cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome and Cowden syndrome, respectively, both of which are associated with high lifetime risks of breast cancer. Advances in the field of breast cancer genetics have led to an improved understanding of detection and prevention strategies. More recently, strategies to target the underlying genetic defects in BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast and ovarian cancers are emerging and may have implications for certain types of sporadic breast cancer.”
“Dietary methionine restriction and supplementation in mammals have beneficial (antiaging) and detrimental effects respectively, which have been related to chronic modifications in the rate of mitochondrial ROS generation.
Better understanding of these mechanisms could provide insight to development find more of novel therapeutic strategies for treatment of diabetes as well as refinement of surgical techniques.”
Script concordance tests (SCTs) can be used to assess clinical reasoning, especially in situations of uncertainty, by comparing the responses of examinees with those of emergency physicians. The examinee’s answers are scored based on the level of agreement with responses provided by a panel of experts. Emergency physicians are frequently uncertain in the interpretation of ECGs. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate an SCT combined with an ECG. Methods An SCT-ECG was developed. The test was administered to medical students, residents and emergency physicians. Scoring was based
on data from a panel of 12 emergency physicians. The statistical analyses assessed the internal reliability of the SCT (Cronbach’s alpha) and its ability to discriminate between the different groups (ANOVA followed by Tukey’s post hoc test). Results The SCT-ECG was administered to 21 medical Kinase Inhibitor Library concentration students, 19 residents and 12 emergency physicians. The internal reliability was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha=0.80). Statistically significant differences were found between the groups (F-0.271=21.07; p smaller than 0.0001). Moreover, significant differences (post hoc test) were detected between students and residents (p smaller than 0.001),
students and experts (p smaller than 0.001), and residents LGX818 and experts (p=0.017). Conclusions This SCT-ECG is a valid tool to assess clinical reasoning in a context of uncertainty due to its high internal reliability and its ability to discriminate between different levels of expertise.”
“Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). HIV-1 Tat protein upregulates transcriptional transactivation. The nucleocapsid protein NC of HIV-1 is a component of virion and plays a key role in genome packaging. Herein, we have demonstrated the interaction between NC and Tat by means of a yeast two-hybrid assay, GST pull-down analysis, co-immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization analysis. We observed that the level of Tat was significantly reduced in the presence of NC. But NC did not affect mRNA expression level of Tat. The level of Tat in the presence of NC was increased by treating cells with a proteasome inhibitor, MG132. The ubiquitination state of Tat was not seen to increase in the presence of NC, suggesting the proteasomal degradation was independent of ubiquitination. Lowered level of Tat in the presence of NC led to a decrease in Tat-mediated transcriptional transactivation.
Here, we investigated both past and recent island differentiation and micro-evolutionary changes in the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) based on combined information from one mitochondrial (Cytochrome c Oxydase subunit I, COI) and 13 microsatellite markers and four morphological characters. This Caribbean endemic and abundant species has a large distribution, and two subspecies are supposed to occur: Z. a. zenaida in the Greater Antilles (GA) and Z. a. aurita in the Lesser
Antilles (LA). Doves were sampled on two GA islands (Puerto Rico and the British Virgin Islands) and six LA islands (Saint Barthelemy, Guadeloupe, Les Saintes, Martinique, Saint Lucia and Barbados). Eleven COI haplotypes were observed that could be assembled in two distinct lineages, with six specific to GA, four to LA, the remaining one occurring in all islands. However, Selleckchem Birinapant the level of divergence between those two lineages was too moderate to fully corroborate the MK-8776 price existence of two subspecies. Colonisation of the studied islands appeared to be a recent process. However, both
phenotypic and microsatellite data suggest that differentiation is already under way between all of them, partly associated with the existence of limited gene flow. No isolation by distance was observed. Differentiation for morphological traits was more pronounced than for neutral markers. These results suggest that despite recent colonisation, genetic drift and/or restricted gene flow are promoting differentiation for neutral markers. Variation in selective pressures between islands may explain the observed phenotypic differentiation.”
“Background Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is defined as a symptom complex comprising urgency, with or without urge incontinence, and usually frequency and nocturia. The association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and bladder symptoms has been reported. This study is designed to investigate whether functional dyspepsia (FD), like IBS, is associated with OAB. Methods A web surveys containing questions about
OAB, FD, IBS, and demographics were completed by 5494 public individuals (2302 men and 3192 women) who have no history of severe illness. The prevalence and overlap of OAB, FD, ALK inhibitor cancer and IBS were examined. Key Results Among participants with FD, 20.5% could also be diagnosed with OAB (odds ratio [OR]: 2.85; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.213.67). Although concomitant FD and IBS were more strongly associated with OAB (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 2.816.73), OAB was also highly prevalent among participants with FD but without IBS (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 2.294.18). Among participants with FD, an overlapping OAB condition was more prevalent in those with both postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and epigastric pain syndrome (EPS) (OR: 3.75; 95% CI: 2.485.67) than in those with PDS or EPS alone. Among participants with OAB, the severity of bladder symptoms was greater in participants with dyspeptic symptoms than without them.
Subsequently, the Barrett’s and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON) identified risk loci for BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma near CRTC1 and BARX1, and within 100 kb of FOXP1. We aimed to identify further SNPs that increased BE risk and to validate
previously reported associations. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify Selleck JQEZ5 variants associated with BE and further analyzed promising variants identified by BEACON by genotyping 10,158 patients with BE and 21,062 controls. RESULTS: We identified 2 SNPs not previously associated with BE: rs3072 (2p24.1; odds ratio [OR] = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.09-1.18; P = 1.8 x 10(-11)) and rs2701108 (12q24.21; OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.86-0.93; P = 7.5 x 10(-9)). The closest protein-coding genes were respectively GDF7 (rs3072), which encodes a ligand in the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, and TBX5 (rs2701108), which encodes a transcription factor that regulates esophageal and cardiac
development. Our data also supported in BE cases 3 risk SNPs identified by BEACON (rs2687201, rs11789015, and rs10423674). Meta-analysis of all data identified another SNP associated with BE and esophageal adenocarcinoma: rs3784262, within ALDH1A2 (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.87-0.93; P = 3.72 x 10(-9)). CONCLUSIONS: see more We identified 2 loci associated with risk of BE and provided data to support a further locus. The genes we found to be associated with risk for BE encode transcription factors involved in thoracic, diaphragmatic, and esophageal development or proteins involved in the inflammatory response.”
“Imatinib mesylate is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 for treatment of many different stages of chronic myeloid leukemia and
in 2002 for treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Imatinib is known to inhibit the dysregulated proliferation of chronic myeloid leukemia, which is associated with the Bcr-Abl kinase; in gastrointestinal stromal tumors, imatinib is known to act via c-Kit kinase inhibition. The objective of this study was to synthesize an F-18-labeled FAK inhibitor analog of imatinib not as a primary imaging agent but rather as a tracer for in vivo drug distribution and tracer concentration that can be used as a PET imaging surrogate for imatinib. Methods: Molecular modeling studies based on the crystal structure of imatinib bound to the active site of Abl were performed for designing the fluorinated analog. A 2-fluoroethyl analog of imatinib (SKI696) was synthesized using well-established procedures. The selectivity and binding affinity of SKI696 were compared with those of imatinib in vitro. Mice bearing K562 tumor xenografts, which are known to overexpress Bcr-Abl, were imaged with F-18-SKI696 PET. A biodistribution study was also performed on K562 tumor-bearing mice to which our radiolabeled tracer was administered.
Eligible studies were those that referred to synergy in preclinical studies to justify a drug combination evaluated in a clinical trial.\n\nEighty-six clinical articles met eligibility criteria and 132 preclinical articles were cited in them. Most of the clinical studies were phase I (43%) or phase II trials (56%).
Appropriate methods to evaluate synergy in preclinical studies included isobologram analysis in 18 studies (13.6%) and median effect in 10 studies (7.6%). Only 26 studies using animal models (39%) attempted to evaluate therapeutic index. There was no association between the result of the clinical trial and the use of an appropriate method to evaluate synergy (P = 0.25, chi-squared test).\n\nSynergy is cited frequently in phase I and phase II studies to justify the Rigosertib solubility dmso evaluation of a specific
drug combination. Inappropriate methods for evaluation of synergy and poor assessment of therapeutic index have been used in most preclinical MK-4827 solubility dmso articles.”
“Background: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly used to treat localized prostate cancer. Although allowing for the delivery of higher doses of radiation to the prostate, its effectiveness compared with the prior standard three-dimensional conformal therapy (3D-CRT) is uncertain.\n\nObjective: To examine the comparative effectiveness of IMRT relative to 3D-CRT.\n\nDesign, setting, and participants: We performed a population-based cohort study using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data to identify men check details diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2001 and 2007 who underwent either 3D-CRT (n = 6976) or IMRT (n = 11 039).\n\nOutcome measurements and statistical analysis: We assessed our main outcomes (ie, the adjusted use of salvage therapy with androgen-deprivation therapy [ADT] and risk of a complication requiring an intervention) using Cox proportional hazards models.\n\nResults and limitations: The percentage of men receiving IMRT increased from 9% in 2001 to 93% in 2007. Compared with those treated with 3D-CRT, low-risk
patients treated with IMRT had similar likelihoods of using salvage therapy with ADT and similar risks of having a complication requiring an intervention (all p > 0.05). Conversely, a subset of higher risk patients treated with IMRT who did not receive concurrent ADT were less likely to use salvage therapy (p = 0.02) while maintaining similar complication rates. Because our cohort includes Medicare beneficiaries, our findings may not be generalizable to younger patients.\n\nConclusions: For a subset of higher risk patients, IMRT appears to show a benefit in terms of reduced salvage therapy without an increase in complications. For other patients, the risks of salvage therapy and complications are comparable between the two modalities. (C) 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.
001-0.03) and an inverse correlation of cotinine with CHRFAM7A (p <= 0.04) in regression models. CHRFAM7A
was not associated with diagnosis or CRP in any bi- or multi-variate analysis. Smoking-related CRP elevations only occurred in cotinine-based comparisons (p <= 0.03), and not when smoking was self- reported. Including biochemical indicators of serum nicotine can help differentiate smoking- versus LCL161 disease-associated changes in nAChR expression.”
“Glycerol has the potential of being a low-cost and extremely versatile building block. However, current transformation strategies Such based on noble-metal-catalysts show several disadvantages including catalyst deactivation or negative environmental impacts. In this study glycerol was oxidized by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) in the presence of laccase from Trametes hirsuta. Analysis
of the reaction production indicated sequential oxidation to glyceraldehyde, glyceric acid and tartronic acid, finally resulting in mesoxalic acid. The number and nature of oxidation products was depended oil the concentration of TEMPO used, At lower TEMPO concentrations (<6 mM) the major initial reaction product was glyceraldehyde while at higher concentration in addition considerable amounts of glyceric acid were formed. Glycerol oxidation was also shown with laccase immobilised Proteasome inhibitor on alumina pellets which increased laccase stability. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objective: Estimate the health risks and benefits of mode shifts from car to cycling and public transport in the metropolitan area of Barcelona, Spain.\n\nMethods: Ion Channel Ligand Library molecular weight We conducted a health impact assessment (HIA), creating 8 different scenarios on the replacement
of short and long car trips, by public transport or/and bike. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality and change in life expectancy related to two different assessments: A) the exposure of travellers to physical activity, air pollution to particulate matter <2.5 mu m (PM2.5), and road traffic fatality; and B) the exposure of general population to PM2.5, modelling by Barcelona Air-Dispersion Model. The secondary outcome was a change in emissions of carbon dioxide.\n\nResults: The annual health impact of a shift of 40% of the car trips, starting and ending in Barcelona City, to cycling (n = 141,690) would be for the travellers who shift modes 1.15 additional deaths from air pollution, 0.17 additional deaths from road traffic fatality and 67.46 deaths avoided from physical activity resulting in a total of 6612 deaths avoided. Fewer deaths would be avoided annually if half of the replaced trips were shifted to public transport (43.76 deaths). The annual health impact in the Barcelona City general population (n=1.630,494) of the 40% reduction in car trips would be 10.03 deaths avoided due to the reduction of 0.64% in exposure to PM2.5.