Natalia Bechtereva, a Russian neurophysiologist, pioneered the te

Natalia Bechtereva, a Russian neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of therapeutic chronic deep brain stimulation to treat various brain disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Denise Albe-Fessard, a French neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of microelectrode recording (MER) in stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Gunvor Kullberg, a Swedish neurosurgeon, contributed in early CT imaging as well as early functional imaging of stereotactic lesions in PD and psychiatric patients. Hilda Molina, a Cuban neurosurgeon, established the Centro Internacional de Restauracion Neurologica selleck chemicals llc (CIREN) and pioneered there MER-guided transplant surgery in PD patients. Veerle Vandewalle, a Belgian neurosurgeon, pioneered

in 1999 deep brain stimulation BEZ235 order (DBS) for Tourette Syndrome.

Conclusion: Although men constitute the great majority of neurosurgeons, neurologists and other neuro-specialists who have made groundbreaking contributions in basal ganglia surgery, there are women who have made equally important and unique contributions to the field. The principal

two techniques used today in functional stereotactic neurosurgery, MER and DBS, have once upon a time been pioneered by women. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Foreign body aspiration can be a fatal problem in all groups of ages. However, it is a leading cause of accidental deaths in children. Especially in the pediatric age group, diagnosis can be delayed because of various challenges. Children younger than 3 years carry the highest risk, as they are inclined to explore objects with their mouths. In most cases of inhaled foreign body, a positive history of aspiration is obtained. We are reporting a case of laryngeal foreign body that is mistreated for 1 week as a croup syndrome.”
“Background: In degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs) collagen type X expression and calcifications have been demonstrated, resembling advanced osteoarthritis (OA), which is associated with hypertrophic

differentiation, characterized by the production of collagen type X, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase Selleck Fer-1 (ALP) and calcifications.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if hypertrophic differentiation occurs during IVD degeneration.

Methods: IVDs from all Thompson degeneration grades were prepared for histology, extraction of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosis (AF) tissue (N = 50) and micro-CT (N = 27). The presence of collagen type X, OPG and Runx2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, with OPG levels also determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of calcification was determined by micro-CT, von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining.

Results: Immunohistochemical staining for collagen type X, OPG, Runx2 appeared more intense in the NP of degenerative compared to healthy IVD samples. OPG levels correlated significantly with degeneration grade (NP: P<0.

Baseline rUTI, UTI in the first 6 weeks, and PVR > 100 cc at 1

Baseline rUTI, UTI in the first 6 weeks, and PVR > 100 cc at 12 months were independent risk factors for UTI between 6 weeks and 12 months in the SISTEr population. Few (2.3-2.4%) had post-operative rUTI, precluding multivariable analysis. In women with pre-operative rUTI, successful surgery (negative cough stress test) at 1 year did not appear to decrease

the risk of persistent rUTI.

Pre-operative Hydroxylase inhibitor rUTI is the strongest risk factor for post-operative UTI.”
“L1(0) FePt film exhibits a very large magnetocrystalline anisotropy (7 x 10(7) ergs/cc). It therefore becomes a promising material candidate for ultrahigh areal density heat assisted magnetic recording media. This paper discusses the effect of pressure on the microstructure

and magnetic properties of L1(0) FePt: X thin films. It has been found that Ar pressure plays an important role in controlling the properties of the composite polycrystalline thin films. As the pressure increases, FePt: X films show much better segregation in the microstructure of the amorphous BYL719 materials within the grain boundary, and the FePt grain size decreases accordingly. It was also found that media coercivity increases as the film microstructure changes from a maze type to a granular type, along with the pressure increase. This is likely due to the enhanced exchange decoupling of the FePt grains in the magnetic layer. The microstructure’s evolution with pressure is in agreement with a structural zone model of the composite polycrystalline thin films. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3559479]“

The causative role of respiratory viruses detected in upper airway secretions in childhood pneumonia needs further investigation.

Objective: To measure the association between Crenolanib ic50 infection with respiratory RNA viruses and pneumonia in children.

Methods: From March 2006 to July 2007, we conducted a case-control study of 680 pneumonia cases (WHO criteria) and 680 randomly selected, concurrently sampled age-matched controls among children aged 2-35 months in Bhaktapur, Nepal. A nasopharyngeal aspirate from each child was examined for 7 respiratory viruses using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We calculated the matched odds ratios (MORs) for the detection of the individual viruses from a case compared with a control as measures of pathogenicity using conditional logistic regression.

Results: At least 1 virus was recovered in 248 (36.5%) cases and 48 (7.1%) controls. The MOR varied from 2.0 to 13.0; the highest associations were observed for parainfluenza virus type 3 (MOR 13.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0-28.0), respiratory syncytial virus (MOR 10.7; CI 4.6-24.6), and influenza A (MOR 6.3; CI 1.9-21.4). We observed that the association was lower for children age 2-5 months compared with older children for parainfluenza virus type 3 (P value for interaction 0.002).

“Mutations in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1) on chromosome<

“Mutations in the presenilin-1 gene (PSEN1) on chromosome

14 are the most common cause of autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with around 180 mutations described to date. PSEN1 AD has a broad clinical phenotype, encompassing not only dementia but a variety of other neurological features which may include epileptic seizures. Around 20% of recorded PSEN1 mutations have been reported to selleck be associated with epileptic seizures, sometimes occurring as an early feature of disease, sometimes late. The epilepsy-associated PSEN1 mutations are spread throughout the PSEN1 gene. This frequency of seizure-associated PSEN1 mutations may be an underestimate, as epileptic seizures may not be recognized as such in the context of a dementing disorder, perhaps being labeled as “”confusion”" or delirious episodes. A high index of clinical suspicion for epileptic seizures in PSEN1 AD is therefore appropriate. The neuropathological substrates of PSEN1 AD-related seizures remain to be determined, as few such cases

have undergone detailed neuropathological examination. Nevertheless, PSEN1 AD should now be recognized, using the new International League Against Epilepsy nomenclature, as a genetic epilepsy syndrome. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We study the effect of population inversion associated with the electron selleck screening library and hole injection in graphene p-i-n structures at the room and slightly lower temperatures. It is assumed that the recombination and energy relaxation of electrons and holes are associated primarily with the interband and intraband processes

assisted by optical phonons. The dependences of the electron-hole and optical phonon effective temperatures on the applied voltage, the current-voltage characteristics, and the frequency-dependent dynamic conductivity are calculated. In particular, we demonstrate that at low and moderate voltages, the injection can lead to a pronounced cooling of the electron-hole Rabusertib mw plasma in the device i-section to the temperatures below the lattice temperature. However at higher voltages, the voltage dependences can be ambiguous exhibiting the S-shape. It is shown that the frequency-dependent dynamic conductivity can be negative in the terahertz (THz) range of frequencies at certain values of the applied voltage. The electron-hole plasma cooling substantially reinforces the effect of negative dynamic conductivity and promotes the realization of terahertz lasing. On the other hand, the heating of optical phonon system can also be crucial affecting the realization of negative dynamic conductivity and terahertz lasing at the room temperatures. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3657853]“
“Eight triplicate samples of meat pie were randomly sampled from standard eatery and local kiosk in Benin City and analyzed microbiologically for the rates of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

A digoxin-induced AV block usually improved (28 of 39) after with

A digoxin-induced AV block usually improved (28 of 39) after withdrawal of the drug. Roughly half of the patients with drug-induced AV block underwent permanent PM implantation. Conclusion: Drug-induced AV block is a serious disease that requires a permanent PM for almost half of the patients. (PACE 2012;XX:17)”
“Coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) are strongly associated with nephropathy in African Americans (AAs). The effect of transplanting kidneys from AA donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk variants is unknown. APOL1 risk variants were genotyped in 106 AA deceased

organ donors and graft survival Selleckchem HIF inhibitor assessed in 136 resultant kidney transplants. Cox-proportional hazard models tested for association between time to graft failure and donor APOL1 genotypes. The mean follow-up was 26.4 +/- 21.8 months. Twenty-two of 136 transplanted kidneys (16%) were from donors with two APOL1 nephropathy risk AZD6244 research buy variants. Twenty-five grafts failed; eight (32%) had two APOL1 risk variants. A multivariate model accounting for donor APOL1 genotype, overall African ancestry, expanded criteria donation, recipient age and gender, HLA mismatch, CIT and PRA revealed that graft survival was significantly shorter in donor kidneys with two APOL1 risk variants (hazard ratio [HR] 3.84; p = 0.008) and higher HLA mismatch (HR 1.52; p = 0.03),

but not for overall African ancestry excluding APOL1. Kidneys RepSox ic50 from AA deceased donors harboring two APOL1 risk variants failed more rapidly after renal transplantation than those with zero or one risk

variants. If replicated, APOL1 genotyping could improve the donor selection process and maximize long-term renal allograft survival.”
“Metastatic disease in the intradural compartment of the spine is a rare manifestation of cancer. We report the case of an 82-year-old patient with an intradural, extramedullary metastasis of renal cell carcinoma in the cervical spine. A literature search for intradural spinal metastases of renal cell carcinoma yielded a total of 26 further cases. 18 patients had sporadic renal cell carcinoma, and 9 patients had von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) in which the metastases of the renal cell carcinoma were embedded within spinal haemangioblastomas. Patients presented with paresis, back pain, altered sensation or, less frequently, bladder dysfunction. Intradural spinal metastases were diagnosed at an earlier age in VHL patients than in sporadic cases (mean 43 +/- 5 years vs. 60 +/- 14.5 years). The metastasis was surgically removed in 81% of patients. Pain improved in all patients, paresis in 90%, hypaesthesia in 38% and bladder dysfunction in 50%. Death occured as a result of systemic cancer progression. 93% of patients in the sporadic renal cell cancer group died within 1.5 years, whereas two thirds of the VHL patients were alive after 2 years.

On the stability test, the formulations

On the stability test, the formulations Autophagy signaling inhibitors were stored at room temperature, for 6 months. The creams containing honey showed satisfactory characteristics in the tests employed (homogeneous aspect, yellow color, characteristic odor, particle size below

10 mu m, and acidic pH). The formulations presented a new-Newtonian behavior and an increase in viscosity due to higher honey concentrations. The spreadability values revealed parallels behaviors between the formulations. During stability test, slight changes in color and odor were detected; however there was a decrease in pH values.”
“Objectives: Adenotonsillectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in pediatric otolaryngology, in which bleeding is a potential complication. We evaluated the efficacy of intravenous tranexamic acid in reducing intraoperative bleeding volume, and bleeding in the following 10 postoperative days in children who underwent adenotonsillectomy.

Design: Double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial.

Setting: Tertiary hospital.

Patients: Ninety-five children of both sexes between four and twelve years old who underwent adenotonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hyperplasia.

Interventions: Intravenous tranexamic acid in the preoperative and at the eighth and the sixteenth hours of the postoperative periods. Main outcome measure: Bleeding volume

was measured in milliliters (mL) at the end of the procedure, and bleeding events were registered in the following 10 postoperative days. Results: There was no statistically significant reduction in bleeding volume with the use of tranexamic acid (mean +/- standard deviation, 135.13 +/- 71.44 [tranexamic acid] versus 158.21 +/- 88.09 [placebo]; P = 0.195). No difference was observed in the incidence of postoperative bleeding in the 10 postoperative days, but the sample size is insufficient to exclude a type 2 error.

Conclusions: There is no

benefit in the use of tranexamic acid for reducing bleeding during the transoperative period of adenotonsillectomy in children. More studies with a greater sample are required to evaluate the benefit of tranexamic acid see more in postoperative bleeding. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of this research was to evaluate the interference of the association of different types of nutritional diet in the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of etoricoxib in in vivo models. The following assays were used: a) Rat paw edema induced by carrageenan; b) Induction of the granulomatous tissue by cotton pellet; c) Dermatitis induced by croton oil; d) Vascular permeability by histamine in rats; e) Writhing test by acetic acid in mice; f) Formalin test in mice and; g) Stress-induced gastric lesions.

Methods: The serum phospholipids of 52 maternal: neonatal pairs w

Methods: The serum phospholipids of 52 maternal: neonatal pairs were analyzed. Maternal samples from consecutive admissions were collected at hospital admission, and umbilical cord blood samples were collected at delivery. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and then separated and quantified by gas-liquid chromatography.

Results: The median maternal percentages of arachidonic acid (AA) (4.9%), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (0.27%) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (2.07%) were below reported international levels. The percentages of AA (9.6%) and DHA (3.2%) in cord serum phospholipids were much higher than maternal samples but remained lower than reported internationally, GSK923295 price whereas cord EPA (1.1%) PFTα ic50 was higher than reported. The highest percentage of DHA in serum phospholipids was found in the Asian subjects (4.21 +/- 0.41%), while the American Indian women had the lowest DHA percentage (1.38 +/- 0.26%). The maternal DHA percentage was negatively correlated with parity (r = -0.22, p = 0.04). Conclusions: In the setting of low maternal levels of important fatty acids, their newborns did not accrue serum levels equivalent to reported international values.”
“Background: Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is a frequent co-morbidity

in patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In recent retrospective studies, higher mortality in patients with CAP and COPD was found. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the 30-day mortality and to evaluate the differences in CAP severity scoring in hospitalised patients with COPD. Methods: A subanalysis of a randomized clinical trial was performed. Results: A total of 262 patients with CAP were included. Ninety-five (36.3%) patients had COPD. A total of 28 (10.7%) Vadimezan patients died within 30 days. No differences between patients

with and without COPD in 30-day mortality were observed [8 (8.4%) vs. 20 (12.0%), p = 0.37]. In the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), significant differences in age, gender and heart rate between patients with and without COPD were observed. Patients with COPD were stratified in higher PSI classes. In the CURB-65 score, age >= 65 years was significantly higher in patients with COPD [72 (75.8%) vs. 88 (52.7%), p = < 0.01]. In a multivariate analysis, only the need for intensive care unit admission and high serum glucose were predictors of mortality [OR 32.50 (95% CI 6.87-153.75), p < 0.01; OR 7.34 (95% CI 1.19-45.4), p = 0.03]. Conclusions: Mortality was not increased in patients with COPD hospitalised with CAP. Severity scores are influenced by age and gender. Further studies evaluating CAP in patients with COPD are needed to explain these findings. Copyright (C) 2009 S.

Many of the tested candidates exhibited higher inhibition efficie

Many of the tested candidates exhibited higher inhibition efficiency than curcumol, suggesting that structural modifications could enhance its activity effectively.”
“In the US, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation

Act (BPCI Act, 2009) provided the pathway to NCT-501 create an abbreviated licensure procedure for biologic products that are demonstrated to be biosimilar to or interchangeable with a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) licensed biologic product.

In February 2012, the FDA issued three guidelines that list the requirements for biosimilar registration. The topics covered include scientific and quality considerations to demonstrate biosimilarity to a reference product and a guidance that clarifies the BPCI Act implementation.

The sponsor application for the biosimilar approval must contain biosimilarity information based on data

see more derived from analytical, animal, and clinical studies. Clinical studies should include an assessment of immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and address one or more indications licensed for the reference product. To demonstrate biosimilarity the applicant is allowed to use comparative animal or clinical data with a non-US-licensed product.

According to these guidelines, the FDA will consider different aspects when evaluating biosimilarity, such as product formulation, complexity, and stability which will have a risk-based approach and will depend on the degree of knowledge of the product characteristics, as well as clinical experience with the reference one. The FDA intends to use a risk-based and facts-focused approach for review of applications of biosimilars, although it faces several challenges. Once a biologic medicine has been demonstrated to be biosimilar to the reference product, an abridged

development program for the biosimilar medicine can be carried out in a similar way to that established by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In addition, FDA legislation goes a step further than the EMA, offering the possibility to adopt full interchangeability for biosimilars.”
“To investigate the protective effect and the underlying mechanism of polygalasaponin F (PS-F) against rotenone-induced selleck chemicals PC12 cells, the cell viability was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. The cell apoptosis rate was analyzed using flow cytometry. The reactive oxygen species was examined using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate, and the adenosine triphosphate depletion was examined using a luciferase-coupled quantification assay. JC-1 staining was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential. Western blotting analysis was used to determine cytochrome c, p53, Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3. Treatment of PC12 cells with rotenone (1-10mol/l) significantly reduced the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment with PS-F (0.

India ink, followed by Ward Blue Latex, was injected into the ant

India ink, followed by Ward Blue Latex, was injected into the anterior tibial, peroneal, and posterior tibial arteries under constant manual pressure to elucidate the vascular supply of the ankle syndesmotic ligaments. Chemical debridement was performed with 6.0% sodium hypochlorite to remove soft tissue, leaving bones,

ligaments, and casts of the vascular anatomy intact. The vascular supply to the syndesmosis was evaluated and recorded.

Results: The anterior vascularity of the syndesmosis was clearly visualized in forty-three of fifty specimens. The peroneal artery supplied an anterior branch (the perforating branch) that perforated the interosseous membrane, an average of 3 cm proximal to the ankle joint. This branch provided the primary vascular supply to the anterior ligaments in twenty-seven specimens (63%). The anterior MK 2206 tibial artery provided additional contribution to the anterior ligaments in the remaining sixteen specimens (37%).

Conclusions: The location of the perforating branch of the peroneal artery places it at risk when injury to the syndesmosis extends to the interosseous membrane 3 cm proximal to the ankle joint. In the majority of specimens, injury to this vessel would result in loss

of the primary blood supply to the anterior ligaments.”
“We have studied defect-rich vanadium DMXAA price oxide nanotubes, with reduced V(4+) concentration, by means of x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. In particular, prominent anomalies at 320 and 370 K attributed to structural phase transitions were manifest in the ESR measurements. The ESR spin susceptibility

exhibited a singlet-triplet transition of the spin dimers and an antiferromagnetic exchange coupling. In the high-temperature region above SNX-5422 in vitro 370 K, where the two distinct ESR lines merged, an activation energy of the fast hopping polaron motion, 0.48 eV, was obtained. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3208066]“
“Short-term mortality risk in young diabetic people is an indicator of quality of care. We assessed this in the Italian incident population-based registry of Turin. The study base included 1210 incident cases (n = 677 aged 0-14 years and n = 533 aged 15-29 years) with diabetes, onset period 1974-2000 in the Province of Turin, Italy. The relevant timescale for analysis was the time since the onset of diabetes to death, or tilt 31 December 2003. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all-cause mortality was computed using the Italian population as a standard, by 5 years, age group, sex, and calendar period. Mean attained age of the incident cohort was 29.7 years (range 5.2-49.7 years). During a mean follow-up period of 15.8 years (range 2.0-29.9 years), there were 19 deaths in 15,967. Nine person-years of observation (n = 9.5 expected deaths), giving an all-cause mortality rate of 1.

The levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine increased significan

The levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine increased significantly in DOCA-salt rats and administration of EAFM significantly decreased these parameters to normality. DOCA-salt hypertensive rats exhibited significantly decreased L-arginine and nitrite + nitrate levels and administration of EAFM brought these parameters to normality.

DOA-salt hypertensive rats showed down-regulation of eNOS and up-regulation of ET-1 protein expressions in heart and kidney, and treatment with EAFM prevented down-regulation of eNOS and significantly down-regulated the ET-1 protein expressions. In conclusion, EAFM provides good blood pressure control by enhancing potassium and decreasing sodium levels, decreasing Anlotinib levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine, and preventing down-regulation of eNOS and significantly down-regulating ET-1 protein expression.”
“Ludwik Fleck was a

polish physician and bacteriologist with major interest in epistemology. In 1935, he published, in German, a monograph entitled ‘Genesis and development of a scientific fact’. His concepts of ‘thought collective’, ‘thought style’ and ‘active and passive associations’ have been materialized in Banff Sapanisertib research buy classification of renal allograft pathology. The dynamics and evolution of the classification of renal allograft pathology, generated within Banff community, reflect perfectly Fleck’s conceptions. In this essay, the Banff community of thought is characterized as a thought collective, according to Fleck’s epistemology. Since its inception, the classification has been evolving in a continuum of active and passive connections, preserving its initial thought style, based on morphology. Whether the emergence of nonmorphological, molecular techniques will result in the end of morphological thought style is a question

the community is presently facing.”
“Loranthus parasiticus, a Chinese folk medicine, has been widely used for the treatment of brain diseases, particularly in southwest China. VX-680 purchase Hence, the present neuroprotection model was designed to investigate its neuroprotective properties against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in NG108-15 cells. L. parasiticus aqueous fraction (LPAF), which was selected in the present study, had proved to be the most active fraction among the other tested extracts and fractions in our previous screening. The restoration of depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), a major endogenous antioxidant, by LPAF was observed after H2O2 insult. Pretreatment with LPAF substantially reduced the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species generated from H2O2. Apoptotic features such as externalization of phosphatidylserine and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential were significantly attenuated by LPAF. In addition, cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent decrease in the H2O2-induced sub-G(1) population by LPAF.

in 1999 The heterogeneous model reported by Casis et al in 2006

in 1999. The heterogeneous model reported by Casis et al. in 2006 is extended to predict the bivariate distributions of the graft copolymer topologies; each topology is characterized by the number of trifunctional branching points per molecule. The developed model assumes polymerization in two phases

and requires the adjustment of a single kinetic parameter. Grafting efficiencies determined by solvent extraction/gravimetry are compared with determinations obtained by the deconvolution of size exclusion chromatograms of the total polymer. The chromatographic technique is fast and simple, but it requires a representative polymerization/fractionation model. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J selleck chemical Appl Polym Sci 111: 1508-1522, 2009″
“Large reversible magnetocaloric effect, which is associated with a second-order magnetic transition at 28 K, has been observed in DyCuAl compound. The maximum values of magnetic entropy change -Delta S(M) and adiabatic temperature change Delta T(ad) are 20.4 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 7.7 K for a field change of 0-5 T, respectively. Especially, the large values of -Delta S(M) (10.9 J kg(-1) K(-1)) and Delta T(ad) (3.6 K) with a considerable refrigerant capacity value of 150 J kg(-1) are also obtained for a relatively low field

change of 0-2 T, suggesting Roscovitine purchase that DyCuAl compound could be considered as a good candidate for low-temperature magnetic refrigerant. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3122598]“
“Genetic variation in MTHFR gene might explain the interindividual differences in the reduction of DNA repaired and the increase of chromosome breakage and damage. Nowadays, chromosomal rearrangement is recognized as a major cause of lymphoid malignancies. In addition, the association of MTHFR polymorphisms with aneuploidy was found in several studies, making the MTHFR gene as a

good candidate selleck inhibitor for leukemia etiology. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the common sequence variation, 677C>T and 1298A>C in the MTHFR gene of 350 fixed cell specimens archived after chromosome analysis. The distribution of the MTHFR polymorphisms frequency was compared in leukemic patients with structural chromosome abnormality and chromosome aneuploidy, as well as in those with no evidence of chromosome abnormalities. We observed a significant decrease in the distribution of T allele in 677C>T polymorphisms among patients with chromosomal abnormalities including both structural aberration and aneuploidy. The same significance result also found in patients with structural aberration when compare with the normal karyotype patients. Suggesting that polymorphism in the MTHFR gene was involved in chromosome abnormalities of leukemia. However, further investigation on the correlation with the specific types of chromosomal aberrations is needed.