, 1999); 1090 W in young endurance athletes (Chamari et al., 1995), 813 W in subjects with recreational activities (Vandewalle et al., 1985); 879 W in untrained students (Linossier et al., 1996)). The measured with the F-v test rPmax for upper limbs is 4.7 W?kg?1, while other studies Imatinib Mesylate clinical trial reveal higher values (10.7 W?kg?1 (Nikolaidis, 2006); 10.7 W?kg?1 in 44 year-olds and 12.3 W?kg?1 in physical education students (Adach et al., 1999); 10.7 W?kg?1 in swimmers (Mercier et al., 1993)). The corresponding value for lower limbs (12.2 W?kg?1) is lower than previous reports; 16.4 W?kg?1 (Nikolaidis, 2006); 13.0 W?kg?1 in untrained students (Linossier et al., 1996); 13.2 W?kg?1 in physical education students, 13.7 W?kg?1 in 44 year-olds (Adach et al., 1999). The ratio upper to lower limbs Pmax (0.
40) is lower than the 0.65 (Nikolaidis, 2006), 0.78 in 44 year-olds and the 0.93 in physical education students (Adach et al., 1999). Two possible explanations for the discrepancy of our results in comparison with previous data (lower values in all the F-v characteristics) might be the age of participants and the sport. All the characteristics measured by F-v test (force, velocity and power) correspond to age-dependent sport-related fitness parameters (muscular strength, speed and anaerobic power). Potential differences between arms and legs could be explained primarily due to muscle mass and muscle fibre type distribution. Muscle strength or force generating capacity is found closely related to muscle mass (Lanza et al., 2003; Metter et al., 2004) and muscle cross-sectional area (Maugha et al.
, 1984). It is proposed that upper limbs muscle mass is 22% (Abe et al., 2003) to 25% of lower limbs (Zatsiorsky, 2002). Our data additionally suggest that other factors, e.g. sport discipline in swimming, training, individualized technique and injuries, might also influence these differences. As shown in the Figure 2, there was a case of three female swimmers who had similar force in legs (120 N, 121 N and 122 N), but their corresponding force in arms differed (84 N, 66 N and 36 N) resulting in a wide range of ratio between upper and lower limbs (0.70, 0.54 and 0.30). A drawback of our study was the inherent limitation of laboratory methods to reproduce the real movements of swimming.
In addition, arms and legs�� power output was examined separately, which did not correspond to the complex movements of the sport that involve the coordination of upper and lower limbs. On the other hand, the laboratory methods provided valid and reliable measures of anaerobic power. Moreover, the distinction between arms and legs�� power came to terms Dacomitinib with the training practice, in which many exercises, either in pool or in the gym, focus on specific body parts. A remarkable observation from the present study was the variability of the ratios of mechanical characteristics between arms and legs in swimmers.