Objective: To describe the successful of HIV-1 genotyping in two samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), after genotype procedures failed from blood. Method: Two HIV-infected patients enrolled in a neurocognitive research study GSK690693 were evaluated when standard HIV-1 genotyping failed from blood plasma samples. Genotyping was performed using the commercial system TRUGENE(R) HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene(R) DNA Sequencing System (Siemens Healthcare
Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results: CSF genotyping was performed via the same commercial platform and was successful in both cases. Conclusion: This report demonstrates that CSF could be used as an alternate clinical specimen for HIV-1 genotyping when it fails from blood.”
“Cadmium (Cd2+) is an industrial and environmental metal. The effect of Cd2+ on intracellular free-Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+](i)) and viability in Madin Darby canine kidney cells was explored. Cd2+ increased [Ca2+](i) in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 of 85 mu M. Cd2+-induced Mn2+ entry demonstrated Ca2+ influx. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ decreased the [Ca2+](i) signal by 60%. The [Ca2+](i) signal was inhibited by La3+ but not by L-type Ca2+ channel blockers. In Ca2+-free medium, Cd2+-induced [Ca2+](i) signal was abolished by pre-treatment with 1 mu M thapsigargin (an endoplasmic reticulum
Ca2+ pump inhibitor) and 2 mu M carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP; a mitochondrial uncoupler). Staurosporine Cd2+-induced Ca2+ release was not altered by inhibition of phospholipase Selleckchem Selonsertib C. At concentrations between 10 and 100 mu M, Cd2+ killed cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of 100 mu M Cd2+ was reversed by pre-chelating cytosolic Ca2+ with BAPTA. Cd2+-induced apoptosis was demonstrated by propidium iodide. Collectively, this study shows that Cd2+
induced a [Ca2+](i) increase in Madin Darby canine kidney cells via evoking Ca2+ entry through non-selective Ca2+ channels, and releasing stored Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in a phospholipase C-independent manner.”
“Drosophila Dicer-1 produces microRNAs (miRNAs) from pre-miRNA, whereas Dicer-2 generates small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from long dsRNA. Alternative splicing of the loquacious (loqs) mRNA generates three distinct Dicer partner proteins. To understand the function of each, we constructed flies expressing Loqs-PA, Loqs-PB, or Loqs-PD. Loqs-PD promotes both endo-and exo-siRNA production by Dicer-2. Loqs-PA or Loqs-PB is required for viability, but the proteins are not fully redundant: a specific subset of miRNAs requires Loqs-PB. Surprisingly, Loqs-PB tunes where Dicer-1 cleaves pre-miR-307a, generating a longer miRNA isoform with a distinct seed sequence and target specificity. The longer form of miR-307a represses glycerol kinase and taranis mRNA expression.
Then, with the biomarker candidates found, ELISA was carried out for individual PreCR and CR samples, and for other verification sets including nonremission (NR) patients and normal samples. We selected two proteins, complement factor H (CFH) and apolipoprotein H (ApoH), with dye (Cy) ratios showing greater than 2.0-fold differences
between the pooled samples. ELISA showed that CFH and ApoH are useful for distinguishing between the recovered (CR and normal) and nonrecovered (PreCR, PreNR, and NR) states in AML (p <0.001). We successfully applied a protein profiling technology of MDLC-DIGE and LC-MS/MS to discover two biomarkers for CR which needs further validation for a clinical setting.”
“A diagnostic drug containing manganese chloride tetrahydrate as a major ingredient
GW3965 purchase is available since 2006. It is used in magnetic resonance imaging as a negative Z-IETD-FMK cell line contrast medium for magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography of the gastrointestinal tract. However, there is no report regarding interaction between manganese and new quinolone antibacterials. We investigated the interactions between new quinolone antibacterials and a diagnostic drug containing manganese in vitro. We evaluated the rate of formation of chelate complex by reacting new quinolone antibacterials (levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) with a diagnostic drug containing manganese. The EC50 values of the formation of chelate complex for levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were 5.14 +/- A 0.14, 5.29 +/- A 0.14, and 0.96 buy EPZ-6438 +/- A 0.04 mM, respectively. The rates of formation of chelate complex
by levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in a reaction with the diagnostic drug were 17.0, 18.9, and 55.5 % in clinical condition, respectively. Our results suggest that a complex of each antibacterial and manganese was formed, with ciprofloxacin causing the strongest interaction. In addition, our findings indicate that the degree of interaction may be an important problem in clinical settings with concomitant administration of a new quinolone antibacterial and diagnostic drug containing manganese.”
“Background: There is continuing controversy whether long-distance running results in irreversible articular cartilage damage. New quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques used at 3.0 T have been developed including T1rho (T1 rho) and T2 relaxation time measurements that detect early cartilage proteoglycan and collagen breakdown.\n\nHypothesis: Marathon runners will demonstrate T1 rho and T2 changes in articular cartilage on MRI after a marathon, which are not seen in nonrunners. These changes are reversible.\n\nStudy Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.
“Purpose To investigate the accuracy and noise performance of fat quantification with
multiple gradient-echo images acquired using bipolar read-out gradients and compare them with those of the well-established unipolar technique.\n\nTheoryThe bipolar read-out technique induces phase and amplitude errors caused by gradient delays, eddy currents, and frequency-dependent coil sensitivity. In this study, these errors were corrected for jointly with the fat/water separation by modeling the impact of these effects on the signal. This approach did not require acquisition of reference data or modification of the pulse sequence.\n\nMethodsSimulations and a phantom experiment were used to investigate the accuracy and noise performance of the technique A-1331852 price and compare them with those of a well-established technique using unipolar read-out gradients. Also, the in vivo feasibility was demonstrated for abdominal applications.\n\nResultsThe phantom experiment demonstrated similar accuracy of the bipolar and unipolar fat quantification techniques. In addition, the noise performance was shown not to be affected by the added estimations of the phase and amplitude errors for most inter-echo times.\n\nConclusionThe bipolar technique
was found to provide accurate fat quantification with noise performance similar to the unipolar technique given an appropriate choice of inter-echo time. Magn Reson Med 71:219-229, HDAC inhibitor 2014. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“To determine muscle adaptations to retraining after short-term detraining, we examined MRT67307 the effects of continuous and interrupted resistance training on muscle size and strength in previously untrained men. Fifteen young men were divided
into continuous training (CTr) or retraining (RTr) groups and performed high-intensity bench press training. The CTr group trained continuously for 15 weeks, while the RTr group trained for 6 weeks, stopped for a 3-week detraining period and resumed training at week 10. After the initial training phase, increases (P<0.01) in one repetition maximum (1-RM) and magnetic resonance imaging-measured triceps brachii and pectorals major muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) were similar in both groups. Muscle CSA and 1-RM increased (P<0.05) continuously for the CTr group, but the muscle adaptations were lower (P<0.05) after the last 6-week training period than after the initial phase. In the RTr group, there were no significant decreases in muscle CSA and 1-RM after the 3-week detraining period, and increases in muscle CSA after retraining were similar to those observed after initial training. Ultimately, improvements in 1-RM and muscle CSA in both groups were similar after the 15-week training period. Our results suggest that compared with continuous 15-week training, 3-week detraining does not inhibit muscle adaptations.”
mechanistic dominance for the past half century and more. In this Account, we illustrate how the simultaneous melding of all four key concepts allows sharp focus on the charge-transfer character of the critical encounter complex to evoke the latent facet of traditional electron-transfer mechanisms. To this
end, we exploit the intervalence (electronic) transition that invariably accompanies LY411575 ic50 the diffusive encounter of electron-rich organic donors (D) with electron-poor acceptors (A) as the experimental harbinger of the collision complex, which is then actually isolated and X-ray crystallographically established as loosely bound pi-stacked pairs of various aromatic and NVP-LDE225 olefinic donor/acceptor dyads with uniform interplanar separations of r(DA) = 3.1 +/- 0.2 angstrom. These X-ray structures, together with the spectral measurements of their
intervalence transitions, lead to the pair of important electron-transfer parameters, H-DA (electronic coupling element) versus lambda(r) (reorganization energy), the ratio of which generally defines the odd-electron mobility within such an encounter complex in terms of the resonance stabilization of the donor/acceptor assembly [1), A] as opposed to the reorganization-energy penalty required for its interconversion to the electron-transfer state [D+., A(-.)]. We recognize the resonance-stabilization energy relative to the intrinsic activation barrier as the mechanistic binding factor, Q = 2H(DA)/lambda(T), to represent the quantitative measure of the highly variable continuum of inner-sphere/outer-sphere interactions that are possible within various types of precursor complexes. First, Q << 1 identifies one extreme mechanism owing to slow electron-transfer rates that result from the dominance of the intrinsic activation barrier (AT) between the encounter and successor complexes. At the other extreme of Q BGJ398 concentration 1, the overwhelming dominance of the resonance stabilization (H-DA) predicts the odd-electron mobility between the donor and
acceptor to occur without an activation barrier such that bimolecular electron transfer is coincident with their diffusional encounter. In between lies a potentially infinite set of states, O < Q < 1 with opposing attractive and destabilizing forces that determine the location of the bound transition states along the reaction coordinate. Three prototypical potentialenergy surfaces evolve as a result of progressively increasing the donor/acceptor bindings (H-DA) extant in the precursor complex (at constant lambda(T)). In these cases, the “outer-sphere” mechanism is limited by the weak donor/acceptor coupling that characterizes the now classical Marcus outer-sphere mechanism.
Randomly selected cases were paired with patients with the KRAS mutation, the EGFR mutation, and KRAS/EGFR wild type patients according to tumor, node, metastasis stage, time of first visit within 1 year, and pathology. Progression-free survival (PFS)
and overall survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox models.\n\nThe KRAS mutation rate for lung adenocarcinoma was 5.90 %. The overall survival was 14.47, 20.57, and 42.73 months for the KRAS group, WT group, and EGFR Z-VAD-FMK ic50 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that KRAS mutation status was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio 2.69, 95 % confidence interval 1.91-3.80, P < 0.001). No difference was found in PFS and tumor responsiveness between patients with a KRAS mutation and those with wild type KRAS/EGFR for chemotherapy and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). PFS did not significantly differ for chemotherapy among the three groups (P = 0.270).\n\nKRAS mutation is a poor prognosis factor, but it is not an independent predictor of response to EGFR-TKI or chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer.”
“PURPOSE: To compare the clinical safety and efficacy of airway placement of barbed and nonbarbed metallic
stents in the treatment of esophagorespiratory fistula (ERF) without stricture.\n\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors prospectively evaluated the clinical results of 10 patients who underwent fluoroscopically guided placement of barbed, fully covered, retrievable metallic stents in the trachea or main bronchus for treatment of ERF without stricture in the esophagus and central airway between 2007 and 2009. The authors compared these outcomes BAY 73-4506 cost with retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes in seven
patients who underwent airway placement of nonbarbed, fully covered, metallic stents for treatment of ERF without stricture between 1998 and 2001. Study end points included stent migration and clinical success, defined as effective closure of the fistula with improved aspiration symptoms, or improvement of dyspnea, within 7 days after stent BKM120 concentration placement.\n\nRESULTS: Clinical success was observed in nine of ten (90%) of patients who received barbed steins, compared with two of seven (29%) who were treated with nonbarbed stents (P = .035). Stent migration within 5 days occurred in zero of ten and five of seven (57%) patients, respectively (P = .015).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: Placement of barbed, covered metallic stents in the central airway is safe and effective for closure of ERF without strictures. The barbed design is effective in preventing stent migration.”
“A vinyl phosphonic acid based flame retardant coating has been applied on the surface of a glass-fibre reinforced epoxy (GRE) composite substrate using a UV polymerisation technique. On exposure to heat the poly (vinyl phosphonic acid) (PVPA) coating thus obtained, intumesces and acts as a thermal insulator, providing active fire protection to the composite structure.
5:1. This result was achieved for input photoelectron currents up to 100 pA, in the continuous illumination regime, which provides a first evidence of the a-Si:H effectiveness in replenishing the electrons dispensed in the multiplication process.”
“A phosphinite derivative that can be easily prepared in two steps from commercially available aminoindanol was found to be an effective HIF-1 cancer catalyst for enantioselective acylation of diols. For the asymmetric desymmetrization of meso-1,2-diols,
the corresponding monoester was obtained in up to 95% ee from the reaction in the presence of 5 mol % catalyst.”
“Babesia ovata is a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan parasite that infects cattle. In our study, bovine blood samples (n=2,034) were collected from 10 different countries (Brazil, China, Ghana, Japan, Mongolia, the Philippines, South Africa,
Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam) and DNA extracted. The DNA samples were screened using an established and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) gene. Parasite DNA was detected among samples collected from Japan, Mongolia and Thailand. Sequence analyses confirmed TPX-0005 mw that the PCR assay detected only B. ovata AMA-1, and that amplicons from different geographical locations were conserved. Our findings highlight the importance of designing adequate strategies to control B. ovata infection in Japan, Mongolia, and Thailand.”
“Objective: Microfilaria of Wuchereria bancrofti has been described in many cytological specimens, where typical blood film morphology has been used for evaluation. However, these studies have not documented the morphological
variations in microfilaria in cytological smears. In the present study, cytological findings in 32 clinically unsuspected cases of filariasis were reviewed with emphasis on morphological details and image morphometric measurements. Study Design: A retrospective analysis of 32 cases of clinically unsuspected filariasis diagnosed by cytology from April 2001 to March 2011 was carried out. Results: All microfilariae were characterized as W. bancrofti and showed a wide variation in their length (202 to 300 p,m) and width (6.2 to 8.4 mu m). Terminal CA4P clinical trial and subterminal swellings were seen in one of the cases causing diagnostic confusion with Brugia malayi. Microfilariae were shorter and wider in May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain than in Papanicolaou-stained smears. Conclusions: Natural variations in the size of microfilariae of W bancrofti are the probable reason for the range of these findings. The overlapping features with microfilaria of B. malayi might be related to subspecies variations in W. bancrofti. Fixation, degeneration and staining procedure also seem to influence the morphological features. This morphometric study highlights the morphological disparities of nnicrofilaria and the differential diagnostic considerations. Copyright (c) 2012 S.
Borderline patients may also benefit from early definitive treatment, but criteria this website defining borderline patients require
further study. Copyright (C) 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins”
“This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of statins for primary prevention of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) in the elderly in Singapore. A Markov model was developed to investigate the lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of statin treatment in those aged 65 years and older without a history of stroke or MI from the perspective of Singapore’s healthcare system, using elderly-specific clinical data and local costs from hospital databases. A lifetime horizon was used and all costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3 % annually. In the base-case analysis, statin treatment prevented an additional four strokes and eight MIs among 1,000 “healthy” elderly individuals compared with no treatment. Statin treatment resulted in a QALY gain of 0.26 and additional
costs of SGD 11,314 Selleckchem Fosbretabulin per person, yielding an ICER of SGD 43,925 (USD 33,495) per QALY gained. The results were sensitive to statin effectiveness, particularly statins’ effect on all-cause mortality, and cost of statin medication. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the probability of statin treatment being cost-effective was 72 % at a willingness-to-pay threshold of SGD 65,000 (USD 49,546) per QALY gained. Shortening
the time horizon from lifetime to 10 years (simulating limited life expectancy) considerably increased the ICER to SGD 291,313 (USD 167,171) per QALY. Female gender and younger age were also associated with higher ICERs owing to a lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and higher costs to manage events in these subgroups. Statin treatment for the primary prevention of CVD in the elderly was cost-effective. However, treatment warrants re-evaluation when the prognosis of the individual is considered less than ten years; other goals may take precedence over CVD prevention.”
“Aim: To examine the influence of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), a triterpene saponin extracted ZD1839 from the traditional medicinal plant ginseng, on the expression of miRNAs in human glioma cells.\n\nMethods: The expression profile of miRNA (miR) was analyzed in human U251, T98MG and A172 glioma cells using a miRNA array and quantitative real-time PCR. Cell viability was assessed using a colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8). Transfection of miR-128 was performed using Lipofectamine 2000. Caspase 3 activity was determined using a caspase colorimetric assay kit. Apoptosis was assessed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Protein expression was determined with Western blot analysis. miRNA-128 targeting activity was measured using a luciferase reporter assay.
MethodsTwenty-seven participants with COPD, 27 with bronchiectasis and 17 control subjects completed reflux symptom evaluation and dual-channel 24h oesophageal pH monitoring. In those with lung disease, pepsin levels in sputum samples were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, with disease severity (lung function and high-resolution computed tomography) also measured. ResultsThe prevalence of GOR in COPD was 37%, in bronchiectasis was 40% and in control subjects was 18% (P=0.005).
Of those diagnosed with GOR, clinically silent reflux was detected in 20% of participants with COPD and 42% with bronchiectasis. While pepsin was found in 33% of COPD and 26% of bronchiectasis participants, the presence of pepsin in sputum was not related to a diagnosis of GOR based on oesophageal pH monitoring in either condition. Neither a diagnosis of GOR nor the presence of pepsin was associated with increased severity of lung disease in COPD or bronchiectasis. ConclusionsThe NCT-501 prevalence of GOR in COPD or bronchiectasis is twice that of the control population, and the diagnosis could not be based on symptoms alone. Pepsin was detected in sputum in COPD and bronchiectasis, selleck kinase inhibitor suggesting a possible role of pulmonary aspiration, which requires further exploration. The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchiectasis
is twice as high compared with individuals without lung disease. The findings of this observational study suggest that gastro-oesophageal reflux is a common comorbidity across the disease spectrum in adults with these lung conditions.”
“ObjectivesTobramycin inhalation solution (TIS; TOBI (R)) has improved forced expiratory volume in 1sec (FEV1) in cystic fibrosis (CF) trials. Using data from the Epidemiologic Study of CF (ESCF), we assessed AG-881 the change in level and trend of FEV1 % predicted (pred) over a 2-year period associated with initiation of TIS during routine clinical practice. MethodsPatients age 8-38 years and in ESCF for 2 years before treatment with TIS as a chronic therapy were selected if they remained on therapy for 2 years,
defined as being on TIS for at least 3 months per year (C-TIS group). Comparator intervals age 8-38 years used TIS smaller than 10% of the time. For each interval, we estimated the level and trend (rate of decline) in FEV1 % pred before and after the index using a piecewise linear mixed-effects model adjusted for potential confounders. ResultsDuring the 2-year pre-index period the C-TIS group (n=2,534) had a more rapid decline in FEV1 (-2.49% vs. -1.39% pred/year) and a lower FEV1 at index (62.6% vs. 74.7% pred) than the comparator group (N=17,656 intervals). After starting chronic TIS, the FEV1 trend line over the 2-year post-index period was higher, but the comparator group’s FEV1 was essentially unchanged (difference 2.22, P smaller than 0.001). Change in slope was not different between groups (0.06, P=0.82).
The percentages of patients screened generally increased over time, although the percentages screened for diabetes and lipid abnormalities seemed to plateau or decrease after 2004. Even after diagnosis, many
obese patients are not receiving recommended laboratory screening tests. Screening increased during the study period, but remains less than ideal. Providers could improve care by more complete laboratory screening in patients diagnosed with obesity.”
“Thymic regrowth following chemotherapy has typical clinical and imaging manifestations that can be used to diagnose it prior to pathological diagnosis. We 5-Fluoracil cost investigated methods for diagnosing thymic regrowth following chemotherapy with non-invasive methods.\n\nOur study included 26 children and adolescents with thymic regrowth following chemotherapy for malignant lymphoma. Computed tomography scans were routinely performed for follow-up observations. After the emergence of new mediastinal masses, patients either underwent Fluorine-18 uorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography scans to identify the characteristics of the mass, or were closely followed up.\n\nThymic regrowth occurred 1-12 months after the last chemotherapy (mean, 4 months). Computed tomography mostly
revealed diffusely enlarged thymic parenchymatous tissues that maintained normal thymic morphology. Computed tomography values were 36.72 +/- 9.48 Hu and increased by 5.56 +/- 2.62 Hu in contrast enhancement. The mean volume selleck kinase inhibitor of the mass was 19.2 cm(3). Twenty patients underwent positron emission tomography; among them, five (25%) EPZ004777 solubility dmso showed no intake of Fluorine-18 uorodeoxyglucose in the anterior mediastinal mass, and 15 (75%) showed radioactivity distribution in the mass with a mean standardized uptake value of 2.7; the shape was regular and radioactivity distribution was uniform. The mean follow-up duration was 40 months and all patients achieved disease-free survival.\n\nIn the absence of pathological
diagnosis, thymic regrowth following chemotherapy can be diagnosed by clinical features combined with characteristic manifestations in computed tomography and positron emission tomography scans.”
“Recent advances in chemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of malignant bone tumours as well as the consistent increase of revision arthroplasties have been followed by an increased use of megaprostheses. These large foreign bodies make infection a common and feared complication. Infection rates of 3 – 31% have been reported (average approx. 15%), often in conjunction with risk factors, e. g. the anatomic region (pelvis implants in particular), implant alloy, and underlying reason for implantation of a megaprosthesis.
For this species we are resurrecting from synonymy Paramycetophylax Kusnezov, 1956 (Mycetophylax bruchi as type species,
by original designation, with M. cristulatus as its new synonym). Myrmicocrypta emeryi Forel, 1907 is the only attine in which females lack the median clypeal seta and have the antennal insertion areas very much enlarged and anteriorly produced, with the psammophore NLRP3 inhibitor setae arising from the middle of the clypeus and not at its anterior margin as in Paramycetophylax. Notwithstanding its inclusion in Mycetophylax by recent authors, it is here recognized as belonging to a hitherto undescribed, thus far monotypic genus, Kalathomyrmex new genus (Myrmicocrypta emeryi as its type species, here designated). We redescribe workers, gynes and males of all species in the three genera and describe for the first time gynes of Mycetophylax conformis and M. simplex, males of M. simplex and M. morschi, and gynes of P. bruchi. Furthermore we present a key to the workers of the taxa treated here (most formerly included under the name Mycetophylax), a key to workers of the Mycetophylax buy PRIMA-1MET in the revised sense, SEM pictures and high resolution AutoMontage(C) photographs of the species, along with maps of collection records and a
summary of biological observations.”
“Accurate knowledge of vital anatomical structures, such as the inferior alveolar nerve, mental nerve, and mental foramen, is critical to achieve favorable results during oral surgical procedures
and dental implant placement. Although uncommon, variations in mandibular foramina have been reported and if unnoticed and, as a result, injured, may lead to patient morbidity, neurosensory disturbances, and other undesired complications. We present a case report of identification of an accessory mandibular foramen (AMF) Trichostatin A encountered during placement of 2 dental implants for a mandibular implant-retained overdenture and demonstrate appropriate management. In addition, we propose a more reasonable terminology for such accessory foramina so as to facilitate communication through common terminology among health care providers. As conventional radiography (periapical and panoramic films) may not allow for proper identification of such anatomical variations, cone-beam computed tomography may be useful in the diagnosis of AMF during treatment planning of dental implants in the mandible.”
“The risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for patients taking an antiplatelet agent is largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association between antiplatelet agent use before admission with the risk of in-hospital VTE in surgical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A retrospective review of all patients admitted to the surgical ICU at a Level I trauma center over 30 months was performed.