A number of steps are needed to support the improved management of tree genetic resources for livelihoods and sustainability (Table 4). For NTFPs, a greater understanding of the genetic GSK2118436 research buy aspects
of production (including gene flow for sustainability) is required, perhaps building on data collected from logged timber trees. For AFTPs, a stronger emphasis on the genetic quality of the trees planted by smallholders is needed, which means paying attention both to domestication and to the systems by which improved germplasm is delivered to farmers (Lillesø et al., 2011). For tree commodity crops, more attention is needed on the valuation of wild and semi-wild genetic resources
so that better methods for conservation that recognise value can be implemented. More work is also needed to develop cultivars that perform well in diverse farm systems. These measures fit within a much wider context of interventions and areas for research needed to improve management Gefitinib and enhance access to markets for tree products and services in order to support rural livelihoods. For example, more research is required to understand the economic, environmental and other trade-offs for the different sectors of rural societies when NTFPs are converted to AFTPs (or, indeed, to new commodity crops; Dawson et al., 2013 and Page, 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase 2003), and more work is needed to ensure equitable relationships
between the different participants in market supply chains (Marshall et al., 2006). The further application of incentives devised by international commodity purchasers to support diverse farm production systems is also required (Millard, 2011). For appropriate policy development, a better quantification of the relative benefits received by rural communities from different tree production categories is required, supported by an appropriate typology for characterisation (de Foresta et al., 2013). We hope that this paper will help support this initiative. We gratefully acknowledge Giulia Baldinelli, Jean-Marc Boffa, Richard Coe, Carol Colfer, Ann Degrande, Michelle Deugd, Steve Franzel, Chris Harwood, Alison Hunt, Riina Jalonen, Janudianto, Katja Kehlenbeck, Christophe Kouame, Roeland Kindt, Mette Kronborg, Jens-Peter Barnekow Lillesø, Anne Mette Lykke, Endri Martini, Stepha McMullen, Edward Millard, Gerardo Medina, Elok Mulyoutami, David Odee, Caleb Orwa, Aulia Perdana, Frank Place, Charlie Pye-Smith, Anders Raebild, Kate Schreckenberg, Gudeta Sileshi, Carmen Sotelo Montes, Motoshi Tomita, Emmanuel Torquebiau, Meine van Noordwijk, Adrian Whiteman and Julia Wilson for providing information to support this paper. “
“Genetic resources of forest trees have been used and transferred by humans for millennia.