In contrast, caauCD2f-3 mRNA was predominantly expressed by the a

In contrast, caauCD2f-3 mRNA was predominantly expressed by the adherent cells. Also, although caauCD2f-2 mRNA expression in three fish was low or undetectable, it seems that caauCD2f-2 was expressed by both populations. SAP was only expressed by the non-adherent cells, suggesting the co-expression of SAP and caauCD2f-1/caauCD2f-4 in a similar cell population. Collectively,

caauCD2f-1, ATR inhibitor caauCD2f-4, and SAP are dominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and caauCD2f-2 and caauCD2f-3 is expressed by lymphocyte as well as monocytes/macrophages. RT-PCR analysis using templates from the purified lymphocyte subsets showed that the caauCD2fs were expressed by various lymphocyte subsets (Fig. 6). caauCD2f-1, caauCD2f-2, and caauCD2f-3 were expressed by CD8α- and Ig-positive cells, suggesting that they are produced in cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs) and B-cells, but not helper T-cells (Th cells). Meanwhile, caauCD2f-4 was expressed by Th cells in addition to CTLs and other lymphocytes. caauCD2f-3 mRNA was detected in CD8- and CD4-negative lymphocytes,

suggesting that it is expressed on B cells, monocytes/macrophages and NK cells. In situ hybridization analysis showed that a part of the round nuclear cells (probably lymphocytes) and the irregular cells with large cytoplasm (probably monocytes or neutrophils) were caauCD2f-positive ( Fig. 7). Hybridizations using a probe capable of detecting all the caauCD2f isoforms showed that caauCD2f-positive cells comprised approximately 17% PBL, and an isoform-specific probe for caauCD2f-1 detected approximately 8.0% of the positive cells. This result indicates that caauCD2f-1-positive cells are a part of the caauCD2f population. To investigate the genomic organization of the teleost CD2f, we surveyed the zebrafish genome

database using BLAST searches with the extracellular domain of caauCD2f-1 as a query. As shown in Fig. 8, six sequences from the Ig domain were found on chromosome 1 (Zv9_scafold Immune system 51) and 29 of the sequences on chromosome 2 (Zv9_scafold 229 and 231), forming clusters within 0.6 Mbp in each chromosome. Searches performed using the sequences of caauCD2f-2, caauCD2f-3, and caauCD2f-3 yielded similar results (data not shown). The zebrafish sequences (zfCD2f-1.2) had 39–94% sequence similarity and 39–86% identity with the caauCD2f-1 sequence. Two putative Ig-like domains in most gene sets were separated with an intron. Synteny conservation was not found between the mammalian CD2 f and zfCD2f-1.2. According to the sequence similarity of their Ig-domain sequences, the zfCD2f-1.2 genes were classified into eight subgroups (I-VIII). As shown by their alignment (Fig. 9), the sequences showed high identity (78.4–97.8%) within each group, and several pairs (group II and VII) located on both chromosomes 1 and 2 shared substantially high (74.3–78.2%) identity (Fig. 9).

With the operating room lights off, we examined the lesion and ou

With the operating room lights off, we examined the lesion and outlined the FVL, measured its size, and recorded data on the surgical tracking Volasertib sheet. Moreover, we used vital staining with iodine and considered in comparison between FVL and IU, and we resected according to the wider boundary of the outline. As a result, the entire area by FVL showed various types of epithelial dysplasia (Fig. 10). There were no normal epithelium cells in any of the FVL regions. Furthermore, the ratio of various types of dysplasia is almost equal between FVL (mild 28.6%, moderate 61.9%, severe

9.5%) and IU (mild 35.3%, moderate 58.8%, severe 5.9%). However, one case of carcinoma of tongue (T1N0M0) showed local recurrence after

surgery guided FV and underwent more surgery. In delineating ratio of FVL and IU into thirty one early OSCC cases, twenty seven cases of FVL (87.1%) were same as or a little higher than IU (71.0%) (Table 2). We considered that determining the surgical margin based on results of FV would not lead to over surgery, and could help prevent SPTs. To elucidate malignant potentiality in FV area, some cases of early OSCC were examined in this study. These materials were obtained from the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Tokyo Dental College. Surgical margin were determined at about 5 mm outside RG7204 mw the area of FVL. A superficial incision was made with a surgical blade along the boundary line of FVL to mark the clinical borderline within the mucosa. We examined expression of Ki-67 and p53 in the area of FVL by means of immunohistochemical methods from these samples. Although these samples are not enough, positive

cells of Ki-67 and p53 seemed to strongly express within the area of FVL with epithelial dysplasia surrounding OSCC (Figure 11 and Figure 12). On the contrary, Ki-67 and p53 were hardly seen in epithelial tissue out of margin. Therefore, we suggest that FVL has malignant potentiality and FV guided surgical margin might not only be adequate but also to be able to help prevent SPTs genetically. Various types of dysplasia surrounding OSCC looks like a normal oral mucosa. Taking margins Doxacurium chloride that are too large cause severe cosmetic and functional morbidity and margins that are too small may leave cancerous tissue behind, as evidenced by frequent positive surgical margins and high locoregional recurrence. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) allows many systemic therapy options for patients with oral cavity cancer in 2012 [20]. NCCN guideline suggested that a margin of at least 5 mm of histologically normal epithelium in the surgical specimen is traditionally regarded as the standard in the treatment of OSCC. Conversely, some reported that such an approach still fails to completely remove the field alterations surrounding OSCC [21], [22], [23], [24], [25] and [26]. Kurita et al.

The correlation between brain function activity and the occlusal

The correlation between brain function activity and the occlusal contact area according to Eichner’s Classification is shown in Fig. 14. A positive correlation coefficient between the brain function activity and occlusal contact area was noted, but no correlation was recognized in each Eichner’s Classification.

The correlation between the brain function activity and occlusal force according to Eichner’s Classification is shown in Fig. 15. A positive correlation coefficient between the brain function activity and occlusal force was shown excluding Eichner’s Classification B-3, but no correlation Alpelisib cell line was shown in each Eichner’s Classification. A positive correlation coefficient between the brain function activity and comfort during chewing was shown only for B-3, but no correlation was shown in all classification. TSA HDAC A positive correlation

coefficient between brain function activity and the degree of satisfaction was shown in B-1 and B-2, but no correlation was shown in all classifications. The brain function is activated through various stimulations. Kodama et al. [48] reported that brain function was activated by music therapy, cooking, and craftwork. In this study, it was possible that the brain function of the subject was activated through conversation and treatment by the doctor. Therefore, in the preliminary examination, we confirmed that the brain function activity was not influenced by conversation and treatment by the doctor, by wearing and removing dentures, by visual stimulation, and by time through measuring brain function activity in a resting state. Furthermore, Temsirolimus when the measurement of the brain function activity was performed twice on the same day, the activity could have been influenced by the measurement order. So, brain

function activity was evaluated on changing the measurement order for gum chewing with and without dentures. As a result, brain function activity was barely influenced by the measurement order. In this study, brain function activation in subjects with dentures was significant compared to that in those without dentures after gum chewing (p < 0.05). It was suggested that trigeminal nerve sensory information transmitted through the periodontal ligament, masticatory muscles, temporomandibular joint, and residual mucous membrane increased when subjects could chew comfortably with appropriate dentures [49]. Ikebe et al. [50] and [51] reported that satisfactory dentures enriched the oral function and health of elderly patients. Therefore, the increase in the occlusal contact area and occlusal force appear to be important factors related to brain function activity. Thus, denture treatment in edentulous and partially edentulous patients dose not only improve the masticatory function, but it also restores the appropriate mechanism for conveying sensory information to the trigeminal nerve and eventually activate brain function activity.

92–0 00)/16 92] × 100 Thus, the value of encapsulation efficienc

92–0.00)/16.92] × 100. Thus, the value of encapsulation efficiency is around 100% or greater than 98.63% if the limit of detection is subtracted from the total concentration of bixin. The high encapsulation efficiency indicates that all bixin in the suspension was present in the nanocapsule structure (inner part and wall). Such high encapsulation efficiency occurred probably due to the nanocapsule core which contains triglycerides (CCT), which facilitates

solubilisation of bixin; this further indicates that nanoencapsulation is an effective technique find more for improving the solubilisation of bixin in aqueous media. The microencapsulation of bixin in different food polymers has been reported to achieve a maximum efficiency of 86.4% (Barbosa et al., 2005). The optimal selleck compound bixin nanocapsule suspension presented a yellow colour with the following CIELAB coordinates of L∗ = 73.67 ± 0.34, a∗ = 6.01 ± 0.24 and b∗ = 48.60 ± 0.95. Compared to the pure bixin solution prepared

in ethanol:water (20:80), with parameters L∗ = 42.10 ± 0.35, a∗ = 13.54 ± 0.98 and b∗ = 25.50 ± 2.2, the bixin nanocapsule suspension presented an increase in luminosity and yellow colour, which was coupled with a decrease in red colour. The viscosity of a suspension is important because the rheological properties affect all stages of manufacture such as mixing, pumping, filling and are valuable tools in quality control. The behaviour of the bixin nanocapsule suspension in this study is typical for a Newtonian fluid, since the increase of the shear stress was proportional to the increase of the shear rate. The optimal bixin nanocapsule formulation (16.92 ± 0.16 μg/mL) presented a viscosity of 11.4 ± 0.24 mPa.s. Immediately after being produced, the bixin nanocapsule suspension showed a mean pH of 5.89 ± 0.70. Paese et al. (2009) used the same formulation to evaluate in vitro the effectiveness of nanoencapsulated benzophenone-3 and produced nanocapsule suspensions with pH values of 6.56 ± 0.09, while Pohlmann, Weiss, Mertins, Silveira, and Guterres (2002) produced indomethacin-loaded nanocapsule Casein kinase 1 suspensions with pH values of 4.2 ± 0.1 in a study aiming to apply the spray-drying technique to produce dried nanocapsules

and nanospheres prepared by the technique of interfacial deposition of preformed polymer, using a similar formulation to that used in this work. One way to evaluate the chemical stability of a nanocapsule suspension is the measurement of the pH, since its decrease can be related to the degradation of the polymer or other ingredient (Kishore et al., 2011 and Mallin et al., 1996). During the first 63 days of storage, no significant change was observed in the pH values (p < 0.05); however, on the 119th day, the pH levels decreased to 4.48 ± 0.32 ( Fig. 4). One way to minimise the changes in pH is to use a buffering agent in the aqueous phase. In a previous study, indomethacin nanocapsule suspensions also showed reduced pH values during storage (3 months) that varied from 4.2 ± 0.

Oxidation was initiated with CuSO4 (100 μM) followed by a 24-h in

Oxidation was initiated with CuSO4 (100 μM) followed by a 24-h incubation at 37 °C (Maxi-shake model SBD50 BIO; Heto, Allerod, Denmark). Then, 33.3 μl EDTA (27 mM) were added. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured as described in the following section. Results were expressed as nmol TBARS/ml serum. TBARS were measured following the method of Buege and Aust (1978) with some modifications. Two hundred microlitres of the reaction mixture from the serum oxidation assay

were treated with 0.8 ml of TBA: TCA: HCl (1:1:1) reagent (0.37% TBA, 15% TCA, 0.25 N HCl). The mixture was heated at 90 °C for 20 min and cooled at room temperature for 10 min before centrifugation at 3000g for 10 min. Cobimetinib mw Absorbance of the supernatant was measured at 532 nm (Varian Cary 50 Conc, Melbourne, Australia). TBARS were calculated using a malondialdehyde–thiobarbituric acid (MDA–TBA) complex molar extinction coefficient of 1.56 × 105 M−1 cm−1. Isolation of LDL was conducted through a heparin–citrate buffer precipitation method previously developed by Wieland and Seidel (1983). Five millilitres of serum were vortexed with

50 ml of heparin–citrate buffer (0.064 M trisodium citrate, Dorsomorphin in vivo 50000 IU/l heparin, pH 5.05) and incubated for 10 min at room temperature. The serum was centrifuged at 1000g for 10 min to precipitate the insoluble lipoproteins. The sediment was resuspended in 1 ml of 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4). Protein content of the LDL suspension was measured using bovine serum albumin as standard ( Lowry, Rosebrough, Farr, & Randall, 1951). Copper-mediated LDL oxidation assay was initiated by incubating a solution of LDL (8 mg/ml of protein) with 70 μl of B. racemosa leaf extract, stem extract or gallic acid (0–1000 μg/ml) for 30 min at 37 °C. Then, 33.3 μl of 50 μM CuSO4 were added.

The mixture was incubated at 37 °C for 24 h. After that, 33.3 μl EDTA (27 mM) were added. The concentration of TBARS was measured as previously described and results were expressed as nmol TBARS/g LDL protein. A positive control group with copper-induced oxidation but without sample treatment was prepared. A negative control group without induction of oxidation and sample treatment was also analysed in parallel. The same 6-phosphogluconolactonase experiment as above, but using a lower concentration of LDL suspension (4 mg/ml protein), was repeated for the determination of lipid hydroperoxides (LHP), another by-product of lipid peroxidation. LHP was measured according to the method of Nourooz-Zadeh, Tajaddini-Sarmadi, Ling, and Wolff (1996) with slight modifications. An aliquot of the treated LDL (0.1 ml) was added with 0.9 ml of Fox reagent containing 250 μM ammonium sulphate, 250 μM iron (II) sulphate, 100 μM xylenol orange, 25 mM H2SO4 and 4 mM butylated hydroxytoluene in 90% (v/v) methanol. The mixture was then incubated for 30 min at 37 °C and centrifuged at 3000g for 10 min. Absorbance of the mixture was measured at 560 nm.

Environment pollution, particularly by metals, is a serious probl

Environment pollution, particularly by metals, is a serious problem confronting society today, because some metals are toxic even at low concentrations (Galaris & Evangelou, 2002). Copper is one of the most used metals, mainly in

electrical industries, galvanisation, fertilizers, mining activities, smelting and refining of metals, and is present in pigments, pesticides and fungicides. Since it is a widely employed element, it has a high potential for contamination and may be present in different types of samples including water and sediments from rivers and lakes, beverages, and food (Ngah, Endud, & Mayanar, 2002). Due to its technological importance, many sensors have been developed for copper determination, such as ion-selective Screening Library electrodes (Gismera, Hueso, Procopio, & Sevilla, 2004), self-assembled monolayer modified gold electrodes (Mohadesi Selleckchem INCB018424 & Taher, 2007), bismuth film electrodes (Pacheco et al., 2008) and modified carbon paste electrodes (MCPE) (Cesarino, Marino, Matos, & Cavalheiro, 2008). The use of these sensors with voltammetric and chronoamperometric techniques shows some advantages, such as high sensitivity and precision and low cost of the equipment, when compared to spectroscopic techniques, for instance, graphite furnace atomic adsorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy

(Mhammedi, Achak, & Chtaini, 2009). The application of MCPE in metal analysis by stripping voltammetry has attracted considerable attention, mainly because the introduction of a chemical modifier allows the concentration of metallic ions at the electrode surface, either by complexation or electrostatic attraction, which MRIP leads to more sensitive electroanalytical procedures with lower

detection limit values (Takeuchi, Santos, Padilha, & Stradiotto, 2007). Different chemical modifiers have been used in the construction of carbon paste electrodes, such as aminopropyl-grafted silica gel (Etienne, Bessiere, & Walcarius, 2001), 3,4-dihydro-4,4,6-trimethyl-2(1H)-pyrimidine thione ( Abbaspour & Moosavi, 2002), carbamoylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica ( Yantasee, Lin, Fryxell, & Busche, 2004), natural zeolite ( Alpat, Yuksel, & Akcay, 2005), and 2-aminothiazole organofunctionalized silica ( Takeuchi et al., 2007). These electrodes show several advantages including easy fabrication and rapid renewal, low background current, low cost, no toxicity, stability in various solvents and a wide electrochemical window ( Estévez-Hernández, Naranjo-Rodriguez, Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros, & Reguera, 2007). Moreover, the use of these electrodes combined with electroanalytical techniques, such as stripping voltammetry, allows different experimental conditions to be set, enhancing the electrode performance.

It did not evaluate in any detail the release mechanisms The mai

It did not evaluate in any detail the release mechanisms. The main conclusions from that work are as follows (Nowack et al., 2012): The release of CNTs from products or articles containing CNT-composites may occur over a long time scale and thus this material will probably alter at a slow rate. It was considered that CNTs can be released upon photochemical Crenolanib degradation of CNT-containing composites. These released CNTs can be transported

to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) or be directly deposited into environmental compartments where they would undergo transformation by photochemistry, oxidation, adsorption of natural organic matter and other organic Panobinostat supplier colloids, biotransformation, and continued abrasive forces. These transformation processes are thought to change CNT aggregation, dispersibility, and interaction with biota in the environmental compartment. The disposal methods, i.e., incineration, WWTPs, and landfill disposal apply to both the CNT composite as well as released CNTs. The incineration of CNT composites subjects them to high temperatures that might result in the airborne release of CNTs if the CNTs survive at

low temperature for a short time. Theoretically CNTs should be burned and mineralized during incineration, as the temperature (around 1000 °C) is higher than the ignition temperature of CNTs (normally below 600 °C) (Sobek and Bucheli, 2009) and the waste is incinerated in the presence of oxygen. However, poorly controlled incineration might result in lower temperatures that would not destroy the CNTs. Disposal of CNT composites in landfills could lead to degradation

or transformation of the polymers, resulting in possible release of CNTs, depending on the presence and efficiency of landfill liners. The main conclusion from this generic release scenario is that after release of CNTs to the environment a multitude of reactions can affect the form of the CNTs and result either in complete destruction or change of properties. The potential release scenarios that are formulated in this review begin with formation of the solid product (master batch) and move Y-27632 2HCl through its life-cycle as a product and article, ending with the article’s reuse or disposal. Exposure scenarios during formation of the master batch as presented by (Fleury et al., in press) are therefore not part of our analysis. The synthesis of CNTs and the making of the master batch (extrusion) are not included in the evaluation. The pelletizing of the master batch is the first process considered. The life-cycle may roughly be broken into three stages: – Manufacturing of CNT/matrix, i.e. the introduction of CNTs into the matrix, and the ultimate product, e.g. a master batch or paint, or article made from/with the CNT/matrix.

Our study addresses the ability of already established thalli of

Our study addresses the ability of already established thalli of L. pulmonaria to survive and stay vital on trees retained at harvest (“life-boating”), i.e. dispersal aspects were not in focus. Nevertheless, colonization of new trees will be decisive for the species’ long-term persistence and thus is an essential aspect to investigate. Experiments

with diaspores of L. pulmonaria ( Scheidegger et al., 1995 and Hilmo ZD1839 in vivo et al., 2011) indicate that establishment, contrary to survival and growth, is hampered by light-exposed conditions, and establishment constraints in young forests have also been suggested by Gjerde et al. (2012). Further studies are needed to examine if habitat requirements indeed differ for different life-history stages in L. pulmonaria and other lichens. It might be surprising that no difference could be detected in either survival or vitality between transplants on aspens in groups and on scattered trees since tree groups could be expected to provide more semi-open conditions, beneficial to the lichen.

But, a tree group according to our criteria did not have to consist of more than four trees which means that the groups could be very small, and thus the difference to scattered trees was not pronounced. Further, several trees in groups had fallen at the inventory after 14 years, and a young forest stand had developed, leveling out differences in the environment surrounding scattered aspens and aspens in groups. Lack of natural young forests following fires in today’s European boreal forest landscapes Palbociclib cell line could mask important occurrence patterns of species that today are viewed as confined to high forest ages; the few remaining intact forests are all old-growth. Recent research indicates that stand-replacing fires were less common and fire frequencies and intensities lower than earlier thought in N. Europe,

implying that there were usually numerous remnant trees in forests regenerating after fire (Kuuluvainen, 2009). It might be that such trees were important habitats for L. pulmonaria and other lichens. Thus, it can be discussed whether L. pulmonaria Dynein is a true old-growth lichen or if it is an old-growth species in the current N. European forest landscapes since natural early-growth forests are lacking. Only in the so far unlogged forest landscapes of N. Russia in which natural fire dynamics still remain would it be possible to study the association of L. pulmonaria and other epiphytic lichens described as sensitive, to different successional stages after natural disturbance. The importance to biodiversity of old-growth structures in early successional stages is today increasingly highlighted in ecology and conservation ( Kouki et al., 2004 and Swanson et al., 2011).

g , when the origins of existing farmland introductions are unkno

g., when the origins of existing farmland introductions are unknown; Dawson et al., 2008). Commercialising the wild harvest of NTFPs has been widely promoted as a conservation measure, based on the assumption that an increase in resource value is an incentive for collectors to manage forests and woodlands more sustainably (FAO, 2010). Experience shows, however, that the concept of commercialisation and conservation proceeding in tandem is often illusory (Belcher PLX-4720 mouse and Schreckenberg, 2007), as more beneficial livelihood outcomes are generally associated with more detrimental environmental outcomes (Kusters et al., 2006). The harvest

of fruit from the argan tree (Argania spinosa), endemic to Morocco, is a good illustration of the dilemmas involved. The oil extracted from the kernels of argan fruit is one of the most expensive

edible oils in the world and development agencies have widely promoted a ‘win–win’ scenario for rural livelihoods and argan forest health based on further commercialisation ( Lybbert et al., 2011). As Lybbert et al. showed, however, while the booming oil export market has benefited the local economy, it has also contributed to forest degradation. In circumstances where NTFPs are over-harvested from the wild, a widely-advocated method to alleviate find more pressure on natural stands and support their more sustainable use has been the cultivation of additional product Cisplatin ic50 sources in farms and plantations (e.g., Lange, 1998 and Strandby-Andersen et al., 2008). Although intuitive, there is surprisingly little clear evidence that this approach works, and some authors have suggested that cultivation may have a detrimental impact on forest and woodland NTFP populations (reviewed in Dawson et al., 2013), as planting can, for example, result in forest populations being degraded to ‘stop-gap’ supply status while cultivated stands mature (Clapp, 2001). Cultivation may also stimulate market development

that unintentionally ‘captures’ forest as well as planted product sources (Cossalter and Pye-Smith, 2003). Gaining an understanding of the circumstances in which positive linkages can be achieved between cultivation and the conservation of forest and woodland NTFP populations is not straightforward, and the topic requires active research (Dawson et al., 2013). Measures that support productivity under cultivation, such as genetic selection and improved management, may better support wild stand conservation (through ‘out-competition’). However, as already noted, this may result in poorer management of natural populations, and such a move may disadvantage the livelihoods of the very poor in communities who do not have access to land for planting and so can only harvest resources from the wild (Page, 2003).

5 pg with all four multiplexes on both the 3130 and 3500 series C

5 pg with all four multiplexes on both the 3130 and 3500 series CE instruments (Fig. 4 and Supplemental Fig. 13). On the 3130 series CE instrument 61–87% and 28–56% of alleles were called at 31 pg and 15.5 pg, respectively whereas on the 3500 series these numbers were 86–94% and 51–71%. As the mass of DNA amplified decreased, the peak height ratio (PHR) at heterozygous loci became more variable with some alleles dropping out at 62.5 pg and below, resulting in PHR values of zero (Supplemental

Fig. 14). Full profiles were obtained at 400 μM hematin, 100 ng/μL humic acid, 200 ng/μL tannic acid and 0.5 mM calcium chloride. Above these concentrations, see more dropout of alleles was observed, the most significant inhibition occurring with calcium chloride and the least with humic acid (Supplemental Fig. 15). The performance in the presence of PCR inhibitors is comparable to that seen with the standard cycling systems [4] and [5]. All of the unique minor contributor alleles were detected at the 1:1 and 2:1 ratios with both mixture sets with the PowerPlex® ESI Fast and

ESX Fast Systems (Supplemental Fig. 16). At the 4:1 ratio, 94–100% of all unique minor contributor alleles were detected with all four multiplexes with the values dropping below 100% due to a minor contributor LY294002 allele that fell in a stutter position being filtered out by the stutter filter for that locus. As the mixture ratio increased to 9:1 and 19:1, there was a gradual decrease in the percentage of unique minor contributor alleles detected (Supplemental Fig. 16). Exposure to increasing Galeterone UV-C energy results in a classic degradation profile with both PowerPlex® ESI 17 Fast and ESX 17 Fast Systems (Supplemental Fig. 17). At 100 mJ of UV-C exposure drop-out

was seen at D10S1248 and D2S441 in PowerPlex® ESI 17 Fast and D18S51, D16S539, D2S1338, and FGA in PowerPlex® ESX 17 Fast (Supplemental Table 5). These loci correspond to some of the largest loci in each multiplex. For both multiplex configurations, the largest standard deviation of the mean size obtained for each ladder allele on the Applied Biosystems 3130 and 3500 series Genetic Analyzers did not exceed 0.11 bases and 0.10 bases, respectively whereas on the ABI PRISM® 310 Genetic Analyzer this value never exceeded 0.14 bases. The sizes of all alleles obtained with components A, B, and C of the Standard Reference Materials 2391c, PCR Based DNA Profiling Standard and 2800M Control DNA with both multiplex configurations were within ±0.5 bases of the size of the corresponding allele in the allelic ladder. Expected genotypes were obtained for components A–C of the Standard Reference Materials 2391c, PCR Based DNA Profiling Standard, and 2800M control DNA in amplification reactions performed at Promega (all four systems), Key Forensics (PowerPlex® ESI Fast Systems) and NBI (PowerPlex® ESX Fast Systems).