This is also an indication that the adsorption mechanism is chang

This is also an indication that the adsorption mechanism is changing with temperature, as previously mentioned. The fact that Phe molecules will form see more hydrophobic bonds in solution as opposed to bonding with the adsorbent as temperature increases could explain the shift in mechanism from pore to film diffusion, given that the

adsorbent structure and porosity will not be affected by the change in temperature. With the hydrophobic interactions in the solution, the size and nature of the molecules will change and probably affect their diffusion characteristics, since larger molecules diffuse with more difficulty than smaller ones. Thermally and chemically treated corn cobs were used for adsorption of phenylalanine. The prepared adsorbent was essentially microporous, with adequate chemical make-up at the surface. The predominant

adsorption mechanism was of hydrophobic type, but others were also observed (e.g., interaction of the ionized carboxylic group of the Phe at the adsorbent surface), depending on the solution pH. The phosphate group introduced Enzalutamide in vitro in the adsorbent during chemical activation also plays a role in Phe removal. Results presented in this study confirm that agricultural residues present potential as raw materials in the production of adsorbents for phenylalanine removal. We acknowledge financial support from the following Brazilian Government Agencies: CAPES, CNPq and FAPEMIG. “
“The aroma of orange juice is one of the most characteristic attributes of all citrus juices (Jordan, Tillman, Mucci, & Laencina, 2001) and fresh orange juice aroma is considered click here a reference against which all juices are judged (Brat, Rega, Alter, Reynes, & Brillouet, 2003). Orange juice aroma consists of a number of volatile aroma compounds with a variety of physicochemical properties, located in a range of physical structures within the orange juice.

Fresh, hand squeezed orange juice is a heterogeneous multiphase system consisting of serum, a clear aqueous phase containing small oil droplets (cloud), soluble compounds and pulp, a water insoluble phase (Brat et al., 2003). Orange pulp consists of both coarse particles (>2 μm) that tend to settle upon storage and fine particles (<2 μm) (Mizrahi & Berk, 1970), which under favourable conditions remain suspended in the serum (Baker & Bruemmer, 1969). Both the pulp suspension and cloud emulsion enhance the colour, flavour, aroma, and mouthfeel of the orange juice, and are present in many commercial juices (Brat et al., 2003). Some classes of volatile aroma compounds are distributed unevenly across the matrix with regions of elevated concentration in the pulp or the serum. For example, in citrus fruits monoterpenes and sesquiterpene were shown by Radford, Kawashima, Friedel, Pope, and Gianturco (1974) to be primarily associated with the pulp. Brat et al.

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