Chromoendoscopy made it possible to identify dysplastic lesions a

Chromoendoscopy made it possible to identify dysplastic lesions and to clarify the borders between neoplastic Pirfenidone datasheet and normal tissue. This development has led to the smart biopsy concept, in which more targeted biopsies become possible after enhanced endoscopy (chromoendoscopy) (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 and Fig. 3). Panchromoendoscopy has become the method of choice for endoscopic surveillance of patients with

IBD (European consensus guidelines).2 Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a research and clinical tool that promises to improve diagnostics and therapeutic algorithms in patients with IBD. Endomicroscopy has been shown to be useful in dysplasia detection and differentiation of lesions to optimize their management (differentiation between colitis-associated neoplasia, sporadic neoplasia, and nonneoplastic lesions) and to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies.4 Confocal endomicroscopy has for the first time revealed in vivo tissue CX-5461 microscopy to gastroenterologists.4 Using this technology, changes in vessel, connective tissue, and cellular-subcellular structures can be graduated during ongoing colonoscopy at subcellular resolution.5 and 6 Confocal endomicroscopy has been shown to decrease the need for random biopsies because it has

a high negative predictive value. Its use is often combined with chromoendoscopy. Intravital staining is used to identify lesions and targeted endomicroscopy is performed to clarify the need for standard biopsies. Thus, endomicroscopically normal-looking mucosa does not usually require further

standard biopsies. Neoplastic changes and regenerative tissue can readily be identified using this method. However, detailed knowledge about the microarchitecture of the mucosa is necessary to achieve high diagnostic yields.6 and 7 The CLE technique introduced in 2004 has been developed Dimethyl sulfoxide for cellular and subcellular imaging of the mucosal layer.5 In confocal microscopy, a low-power laser is focused to a single point in a microscopic field of view and the same lens is used as both condenser and objective folding the optical path, so the point of illumination coincides with the point of detection within the specimen.6 Light emanating from that point is focused through a pinhole to a detector and light emanating from outside the illuminated spot is not detected. Because the illumination and detection systems are at the same focal plane, they are termed confocal.6 All detected signals from the illuminated spot are captured and the created image is an optical section representing 1 focal plane within the examined specimen. The image of a scanned region can be constructed and digitized by measuring the light returning to the detector from successive points, and every point is typically scanned in a raster pattern.6 At present, 2 CLE-based systems are used in clinical routine and research (Table 1)6 and 7: 1.

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