When these data are available, an interesting clinical evaluation may focus on the combination of nilotinib with mTOR inhibitors. To date, no Akt inhibitor one combination of agents has yet been approved as standard GIST treatment in clinical practice. However, there is a growing interest in FK228 research buy combined therapies for various reasons , the commonest being the occurrence of primary and secondary resistance related to KIT and PDGFRA kinase genotype status [5, 6]. Specific point mutations are associated with a different sensitivity to imatinib. Wild-type KIT/PDGFRA GISTs are also
generally more resistant to imatinib. KIT or PDGFRA receptor abnormalities including KIT gene amplification, loss of KIT expression, and acquired mutations interfering with imatinib binding may also occur. Many cases of GIST show a clonal progression of disease with different nodules harbouring different KIT and PDGFRA mutations that confer an inter- and intra-lesional heterogeneity of drug resistance
. Moreover, new KIT/PGDFRA-dependent molecular targets, such as PI3K, AKT, mTOR, BRAF. and KIT-independent pathways such as IGF-1R, VEGF have been discovered in GIST and should be integrated in the therapeutic approach to overcome drug resistance . Lastly, histological changes, chromosomal alterations or a decrease of imatinib bioavailability may affect TKs responsiveness. www.selleckchem.com/products/i-bet151-gsk1210151a.html Apart from the combinations of different TKIs and mTOR inhibitors discussed above, other potential combinations in GIST have been reported. The addition Cediranib (AZD2171) of perifosine, an AKT inhibitor, to imatinib showed a minimal activity in 40 imatinib-resistant GIST patients, but 4/5 (80%) patients
with WT GIST experienced 1 partial response and 3 had stable disease according to Choi’s criteria . A phase III randomized trial of imatinib, with or without bevacizumab (SO502 trial) in untreated patients with metastatic or unresectable GIST is now ongoing. As future perspectives, IGF-1R inhibitors should be combined with TKIs because IGF1r was recently found over-expressed in GISTs, especially in children and WT young adults GISTs patients [34–38]. Potential therapeutic combinations are growing, but more preclinical studies of these strategies using adequate models are needed. Cell lines well characterized for the molecular and genomic background, and sophisticated xenograft animals of GIST are required to study the mechanism of drug activity or drug-mediated up or down-regulated molecular profiles and the acquisition of secondary biological aberrations. Recently, knock-in murine animals were bred by introducing a germ-line gain-of-function mutation of the KIT receptor into the mouse genome [39–43]. The future correlation between small animal imaging features and molecular analyses may held to clarify the antitumor effect of new therapeutic strategies before clinical implementation. In conclusion, we report the in vivo evaluation of antitumor activity of single agents and combined treatments in GIST.