War zones yield many vascular injuries as was seen in Vietnam [11

War zones yield many vascular injuries as was seen in Vietnam [11],

Bosnia, Croatia [12–14], Serbia [15], Izrael and recent battlefields in Afghanistan and Iraq [16–18]. Third, anatomic localization of injury has also shown to be of importance for the outcome. Injuries to the thoracic and abdominal aorta as well of the pulmonary artery were fatal in almost all cases. Except in two injuries to the abdominal aorta, that were successfully managed, all patients, actually, PU-H71 concentration died in theater. This course of the injuries reflects the fact that these vessels are not only to large and therefore the exsanguinations is immediate, but also AZD9291 datasheet noncompressible and therefore difficult to treat learn more in preoperative phase. This is the reason why the best injuries to treat are shown to be those of the upper limbs and lower limbs. Of these, the worst to treat are injuries to the popliteal artery. This is not only our experience

but was thoroughly discussed in the literature. Forth, associated injuries are determinant for the outcome of the injury. In our study, almost every forth injury to the vessel was complex (24.2%) – associated with the injury to the distant organs or injuries to the veins, nerves or bones in the proximity. Such were all blunt and landmine injuries, 34.21% of the gunshot injuries and only 5.35% of the injuries inflicted by sharp objects. Evaluated statistically difference was important (X 2-test = 16.5, P = 0.001). Because of these injuries, the reconstruction of the injured vessels had to be delayed (until injuries to vital organs were taken care of) or lasted longer (until other injuries are taken care of). In the first case, prolonged ischemia of the tissues led to an undesirable outcome, and in the second, the infection rate was higher and functional outcome poorer. Fifth, decision to operate, based on the presence of “hard signs” of vascular trauma, has been proved safe in our study. In last five

years, we used triplex scan routinely in all our patients and we have found this diagnostic tool very important in supporting clinical decision. This diagnostic approach has shown very effective, since only two injuries, later presented as false aneurysm and arteriovenous fistulas, were missed (Figure 3). It is important to mention Rebamipide however that both of the missed injuries were surgically corrected without sequels. Beside the fact that we employed fasciotomy in twelve cases (10%), half of whose was prophylactic and that we used the intra-arterial shunts in three occasions (2.5%), these did not change the outcome in our patients. However, these two damage control techniques are reported to be of use and are a part of the treatment protocols all around the world, including our. This paper does not discuss employed surgical techniques since they were standardized reflecting recent treatment protocols.

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