Vis Neurosci 23:127-135] However, the mechanisms which limit the

Vis Neurosci 23:127-135]. However, the mechanisms which limit the frequency following through the APB sensitive and insensitive rod Off-pathways remain unknown. In the current study, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from ganglion cells in dark and light adapted mouse retina to identify the mechanisms that limit the frequency following through the APB sensitive and insensitive rod Off-pathways. The results showed that the sites from All amacrine cells to Off cone

bipolar cells are PKC inhibitor the major mechanisms that limit the frequency following through the APB sensitive rod Off-pathway. In the APB insensitive rod Off-pathways, rods themselves limited the frequency following through these pathways. Moreover, ganglion cells were able to follow higher frequencies under photopic conditions than under scotopic conditions. The Off responses followed

lower frequencies than On responses under photopic conditions. This finding was observed in cells that yielded On or Off responses only as well as in On-Off cells. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A growing body of work has documented sex differences in many behavioral, neurochemical, and morphological responses to stress. Chronic stress alters morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex in male rats. However, potential sex differences in stress-induced selleck compound morphological changes in medial prefrontal cortex have not been examined. Thus, in Experiment 1 we assessed dendritic morphology in medial Tariquidar order prefrontal cortex in male and female rats after chronic stress. Male and female rats underwent either 3 hours of restraint daily for 1 week or were left unhandled except for weighing. On the final day of restraint, all rats were euthanized and

brains were stained using a Golgi-Cox procedure. Pyramidal neurons in layer II-III of medial prefrontal cortex were drawn in three dimensions, and morphology of apical and basilar arbors was quantified. In males, stress decreased apical dendritic branch number and length, whereas in females, stress increased apical dendritic length. In Experiment 2, we assessed whether estradiol mediates this stress-induced dendritic hypertrophy in females by assessing the effects of restraint stress on female rats that had received either ovariectomy with or without 17-beta-estradiol replacement or sham ovariectomy. Brains were processed and neurons reconstructed as described in Experiment 1. Both sham-operated and ovariectomized rats with estradiol implants showed stress-induced increases in apical dendritic material, whereas ovariectomy without estradiol replacement prevented the stress-induced increase.

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