Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) a

Total RNA was extracted using Trizol (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. Northern blot hybridizations were performed using 10 μg of total RNA. RNA samples were denatured in RNA sample buffer at 65°C for 10 min. The buffer consisted of 250 μL formamide, 83

μL of 37% (w/v) formaldehyde, 83 μL of 6× loading dye (Promega, Madison, WI), 50 μL of 10× morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (MOPS; 20 mM MOPS and 5 mM sodium acetate) buffer, 1 mM EDTA (pH 7.0), and 34 μL of distilled water. Selleck Lazertinib RNA samples were separated on 1% agarose gels containing MOPS buffer with 2% (v/v) formaldehyde. DNA probes were synthesized by PCR using specific oligonucleotides (template sequences): PCAR-R3 (for caroS1K), PflhC-R1 (for flhC), and PflhD (for flhD) derived from Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Table 2). Template DNAs (caroS1K, flhD, and flhC) were obtained by PCR amplification. The probes were nonradioactively labeled by random priming using a digoxigenin (DIG) High Prime kit (Roche, Basel, Switzerland). To Rigosertib in vitro add the correct amount of probe for hybridization, a serial dilution of each probe (0.05–10 pg) was spotted on a nylon membrane, and the labeling sensitivity (amount of labeled DNA per spot) was

determined. RNA was buy Selinexor transferred overnight to a positively charged nylon membrane (Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, England) by capillary transfer using 20× SSC (0.3 M NaCl and 0.03 M sodium citrate, pH 7.0). The membrane after hybridization (performed for 16 h at 50°C in DIG Eazy Hyb buffer solution; Roche) was washed, and the specific transcripts on the blots were detected using a DIG luminescence Histone demethylase detection kit (Roche) according to the manufacturer’s

protocol. Motility test A sterile loopful of bacterial cells was carefully inoculated vertically into tubes containing soft agar (IFO-802 medium with 0.5% agarose). After incubation for one month, motility was determined by migration and/or outgrowth of bacterial cells from the original inoculation line. Results Isolation of transposon insertion mutants Conjugation of strain H-rif-8-6 with E. coli 1830 led to the isolation of 3000 colonies that grew on the selective plates containing 50 μg/mL rifampicin and kanamycin. Their antibiotic resistance was ascertained by rechecking growth on the selective medium and was found to be a stable property. Bacteriocin assay of Tn5 insertional mutants The bacteriocin activity of the putative insertion mutants was examined. The diameters of the inhibition zone typical were smaller around the putative mutant strains than parental strains, indicating the possibility that a gene related to Carocin S1 production had been inserted into the Tn5 transposon (Fig. 1). Figure 1 Bacteriocin activity of Tn 5 insertion mutants of the Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp.

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