Methods Parasite culture
Unless check details specified, the T. cruzi Dm28 clone was used for the experiments. Epimastigotes were cultured to exponential growth phase in liver infusion tryptose (LIT) liquid medium  supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal calf serum (Sigma), 0.025 mg/mL hemin, 30 μg/mL streptomycin and 50 μg/mL penicillin at 28°C. Metacyclic trypomastigotes were BIX 1294 cell line obtained according to Contreras et al. . Briefly, epimastigotes in late exponential growth phase were harvested by centrifugation and incubated for two hours at 28°C in artificial triatomine urine medium (TAU; 190 mM NaCl, 17 mM KCl, 2 mM CaCl2, 2 mM MgCl2, 8 mM phosphate buffer pH 6.0) at a density of 5 × 108 cells/mL. Thereafter, the parasites were incubated in TAU3AAG medium (TAU supplemented with 10 mM L-proline, 50 mM L-glutamate, 2 mM L-aspartate, 10 mM glucose) to a final concentration of 5 × 106 cells/mL.
After incubation at 28°C for 72 h, the parasites were resuspended in PSG (73 mM NaCl, 1% glucose, 5 mM sodium phosphate, pH 8.0) and separated in DEAE-52-cellulose . AC220 concentration The metacyclic trypomastigotes obtained were recovered by centrifugation and resuspended in TAU medium. They were then treated for 30 min at 37°C with an equal volume of fresh guinea pig serum. After washing the parasites 3 times with NKM buffer (40 mM NaCl, 5 mM KCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.4), they were used to infect VERO cells in a 10:1 parasite: VERO cell ratio. The infected monolayers were cultured in RPMI medium (SIGMA) at 37°C without agitation in a 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 days. After 24 h of infection the medium was changed daily. Four-day-old infected
monolayers of VERO cells containing amastigotes were transferred to a 37°C incubator without CO2 supply. After approximately two days, disrupted cells released the intracellular amastigotes. They were purified from the cell debris by allowing them to decant Oxaprozin in sterile 50 mL Falcon tubes and/or by centrifugation at 1,000 × g for 5 min. The calculated purity of the different developmental stages was between 90–100%. Protein extracts were prepared as previously described . Tc38 Antibody A polyclonal antiserum (anti-Tc38) was raised in New Zealand White rabbits by immunization with the recombinant fusion protein GST-Tc38 using Freund’s adjuvant. Rabbits were inoculated sub-cutaneously three times, at two-week intervals, with the protein (250 μg each time) and serum was obtained two weeks after the last boost. The polyclonal serum was purified on DEAE Affi-Gel®Blue columns (BioRad) following manufacturer’s instructions. Afterwards, purification using protein extract of T. cruzi epimastigotes and E. coli protein extract bound to Affi-Gel 10 Gel columns (BioRad) was performed. 1 mL of Affigel-10 was washed with H20 and incubated with 24 mg (8 mL) of whole T.