In a recent report from a densitometry practice in the UK, Middle

In a recent report from a densitometry practice in the UK, Middleton et al. also concluded that the selection of patients for VFA should be based on a calculated index rather than individual risk factors or BMD measurement [32]. Contrary to population

studies which report lower prevalence of vertebral fractures in men compared to women [16, 33], we found that males had higher probability of having vertebral fractures relative to females (Table 1). This is likely due to a referral bias, with men undergoing bone densitometry if they have significant pathology find more associated with osteoporosis, such as history of glucocorticoid use or organ transplantation, while women are referred for screening purposes. The prevalence of vertebral fracture in our male subjects (34%) was very similar to that reported in a study which examined VFA results in men referred for BMD testing, where the prevalence of vertebral fractures was 32% [34]. It is not likely that the higher prevalence of vertebral fractures in men was due to traumatic vertebral fractures because we found a strong association between vertebral fractures and low BMD T-scores, which would not be expected

had the vertebral fractures been of traumatic origin. The model we derived is likely to perform well in assessing the probability of finding vertebral fractures on VFA in women referred for densitometry. This is Thiazovivin in vitro supported by our observation that the model we derived from two thirds of subjects (randomized on main risk factors, see Results) performed well in the remaining one third of subjects. In addition, the values of regression coefficients (odds ratio) from our model are similar to values reported by Vogt [15] and Kaptoge [16], and the performance of our model and that of Vogt and Kaptoge models in our study population

are very similar (data not shown). Nevertheless, a further study in a different population may help to fully test the predictive value of our model for its inclusion into routine densitometry operation. One could argue that VFA is not useful unless it impacts the treatment 6-phosphogluconolactonase decisions, which is most likely to occur in subjects with BMD diagnosis of osteopenia. In practice, however, many clinicians find information on vertebral fractures useful even in patients who have osteoporosis by BMD criteria. For example, in a treatment-naïve patient with vertebral fractures, at least some experts would first use an anabolic rather than an antiresorptive drug; a drug holiday may not be offered after 5 years of bisphosphonate use to a patient with vertebral fractures; or a patient who is selleck chemicals reluctant to use pharmacotherapy may be more likely to comply with the treatment if vertebral fractures are discovered. There are some limitations to our study. The number of men in our study is too small to permit calculation of risk factor score for men.

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