However, the formation voltage is reduced to approximately 13 V a

However, the formation voltage is reduced to approximately 13 V after PMA treatment of the device at 400°C for 10 min under N2.

The leakage currents of the as-deposited and annealed devices are 1.2 × 10−10 and 7.5 × 10−10 A, respectively, at a read voltage (V read) of +1 V. This suggests that Ge-O bonds are volatized [42], and more oxygen vacancies are created after annealing. It is known that the melting points of Ir, IrO2, Ge, and GeO2 are 2,466°C, 1,100°C, 937.4°C, and 1,115°C, respectively. The annealing temperature (400°C) is much lower than the melting points of the above materials. Therefore, the interdiffusion between IrO x and GeO x layers is not possible. However, the outdiffusion of oxygen from GeO x layer happened after PMA, which results in more leakage pathways through PND-1186 mouse the GeO x film. The current conduction pathways are created during the formation process, so resistive switching occurs. These pathways are formed by oxygen ion migration, which was observed in situ on the TE surface by optical imaging (OM) during measurement of the device under positive learn more bias. Several static images were obtained from video or real-time observation as the

voltage was increased from 0 to 19 V; these are presented in Figure 5c,f. For simplicity, we have given the time scale on the I-V curve (Figure 5b) and the corresponding static OM images from video as well. Figure 5c shows an OM image of the device surface at time zero (t = 0 s) or pristine one. At t = 5 s, the current increases, and the device surface is partially changed by the evolution of O2 gas (Figure 5d). One can see clearly different views on the device active regions between fresh and after 5 s of stress. Black smoke on the active device region is obviously O2 gas; however, those are not images during device burning. Our microscope does not have a good resolution. After the formation, the devices showed resistive switching, which proves that O2 gas came out indirectly. Under an external electric field, the Ge-O bonds in the GeO x film break and O2 gas forms. The Ge-O bond breaking process

is completed by t = 10 s or at the formation voltage, as shown in Figure 5e. After 30 s, there are no O2 bubbles (Figure 5f). However, CYTH4 the TE surface has changed, which suggests that the GeO x switching material is modified. It is interesting to note that the O2 bubbles readily come out through the TE because of the good porosity of the IrO x film, as shown in Figure 6. The typical thickness of the IrO x film deposited on the SiO2 surface was 3 nm. A plan-view TEM image shows a net-type crystalline IrO x film (black) on the SiO2 surface (white). Under positive voltage on the TE for a fresh device, evolution of O2 gas is observed. However, no gas is observed when a negative voltage is applied to the TE. This suggests that the oxygen ions migrate as a negative charge towards the BE, which acts as a sink.

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