Figure buy BIIB057 4 LTS characteristics. (a) Plots of calculated and measured spectra of Cs0.33WO3 film in the range from UV to NIR region and (b) effects of number density of free electrons and distance between nanoparticles in the film on solar transmittance selectivity. The effect of the internanoparticle distance is demonstrated in Figure 4, which shows the solar transmittance selectivity for the multiple ratios of parameters. The multiple ratio with ‘1’ of the number density of free

electrons was determined from the solution-based results (i.e., ϱ = 6.3 × 1021 cm−3) [5]. Unfortunately, the distance of nanoparticles was not reported before; we used 8 nm as the standard parameter. As the distance between nanoparticles is too small (<1 of multiple ratio), the solar transmittance selectivity is also decreased due to the loss of transmittance in visible range. According to this sensitivity

analysis, we find that the distance of nanoparticles has a pronounced effect on the solar transmittance selectivity in common with those from the number density of free electrons. Moreover, one can reasonably state that the number density on the thin layers is more important than ��-Nicotinamide concentration the content of the coated layer throughout the entire volume. Therefore, this study fabricated a double layer-coated film using the facile dense layer of nanoparticles [21] and attempted to analyze the factors that quantitatively influence its optical characteristics. The quantitative evaluation of a novel double layer-coated film As explained by the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy Vorinostat cost (EDS) analysis of a section of the coated layer depicted in Figure 5, the contents of tungsten compound in the coating layer of the double layer-coated film exceed those in the composite layer. Despite measurement errors (1%), reproducible results can be obtained as stated in Table 2, which indicates that the nanoparticles in the double-coated layers are in close proximity. The residual nanoparticle

content was determined via the TGA measurement and confirmed that the content of the composite layer-coated materials was almost identical to that of the double layer-coated nanoparticles (<1%). This result indicates that the nanoparticles in the double layer are more densely distributed than those in the composite layer, and the number density of the particles in the horizontal layer, not the number on the coated layer, is larger. Figure 5 Comparison of the composite and double layer by EDS and TGA analysis. (a) EDS spectra and (b) TGA curves of the composite layer and the lower layer of the double layer-coated film. Table 2 EDS results of the coated layer in the composite layer and double layer films   Double layer-coated film Composite layer-coated film [weight %] [weight %] Carbon K shell 41.50 42.68 Oxygen K shell 23.77 38.81 Cesium L shell 10.32 2.94 Tungsten M shell 24.41 15.57 Total 100.

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