Cultures of the ΔyieM grew significantly better than WT in polymyxin B and colistin over a range of treatment BMS345541 order doses (Figure 1A, B). Since the deletion of yieM does not cause a change in the lipid A structure of the LPS (Additional
File 1, Figure S1B, C), these data suggest that hyper-vesiculation is protective against these AMPs. When treated with antibiotics that target peptidoglycan synthesis and protein synthesis (https://www.selleckchem.com/products/SP600125.html ceftriaxone, ampicillin, and tetracycline), the mutant demonstrated minimal or no change in growth phenotypes compared to the WT (data not shown). Together, these results suggest that vesicles can serve a protective function for some antibiotics, notably those antibiotics that
interact significantly with the outer membrane. Figure 1 OMV-mediated protection to AMPs. Relative survival of WT (solid line) and ΔyieM (dashed line) E.coli after 2 h treatment with the indicated concentrations of polymyxin B (A) and colistin (B). (C) Cultures of mid-log phase WT E. coli were simultaneously selleck chemical treated with the indicated antibiotic (polymyxin B (PMB) 1.5 μg/mL and colistin (COL) 1.0 μg/mL) and either no OMVs (black bars) or with OMVs purified from WT E.coli (4 μg/mL) (grey bars). (D) To titrate OMV-mediated protection, indicated concentrations of WT OMVs were co-incubated in media for 2 h with indicated concentrations of polymyxin B and the media cleared of OMVs by centrifugation. Polymyxin B activity remaining in the media was assessed by adding the pretreated media to a mid log-phase culture of WT E. coli, incubating for
2 h, and plating for CFU. Relative growth (% Survival) was determined by dividing the CFU/mL obtained from antibiotic-treated cultures by the CFU/mL from cultures without antibiotic. (n = 9 for all experiments). Outer membrane vesicles mediate protection against antimicrobial peptides Secreted OMVs might help to defend cells against outer membrane-acting antibiotics based on the nearly identical surface constituents Selleckchem Neratinib of the OMVs and the bacterial outer membrane. To address this possibility, we tested directly whether addition of purified OMVs could increase the survival of WT bacteria challenged with antibiotic. WT cultures were treated with antibiotic in the presence or absence of purified OMVs and growth was measured. The time course of the experiment was kept brief so the amount of OMVs the strain itself produced during the trial would be negligible compared with the quantity of OMVs added. A high OMV concentration was used in these initial experiments in order to detect whether there would be any effect. The simultaneous addition of OMVs with the polymyxin B or colistin treatment resulted in significantly increased survival compared to cultures treated with those antibiotics alone (Figure 1C).