Adaptation strategies comprised a diversity of actions. Every major category of the action taxonomy was represented except Education and Awareness. Actions to restore habitat and natural processes like hydrologic and fire regimes, and to influence government policies

and recommendations were dominant, cited 16 and 13 times, respectively. When actions are viewed in relation to higher-level headings within the taxonomy, science and planning are frequently cited, this website as are actions related to land and water protection; livelihood, economics & other incentives; and external capacity building (Table 7). The predominance of habitat restoration and policy actions may be a reflection of The Nature Conservancy’s core competencies—teams may have been predisposed to pursue actions with which they were most familiar and skilled. That notwithstanding, projects prescribed a diversity of actions within their strategies, demonstrating that the challenge of climate adaptation does not have a single, simple solution. Adaptation requires a carefully

selleck selected combination of actions to achieve desired outcomes. Just as the specific impacts are varied, so too are the actions that should be taken. The fact that several project teams indicated a need for more planning and research underscores the need for rigorous science to answer key questions and resolve key uncertainties. This is understandable in this early phase of adaptation strategy development, but project teams must avoid “analysis CFTRinh-172 paralysis” or letting uncertainty be an excuse for delaying reasonable actions. Costs of adaptation strategies A possible concern Methocarbamol about modifying conservation strategies to account for climate change is that adaptation strategies may be too costly. To assess this concern, we summarized categorical cost estimates provided by project teams. Teams estimated cost as Low (<$10,000), Medium (≥$10,000, <$100,000), High (≥$100,000, <$1,000,000) and Very High (≥$1,000,000). Some teams estimated costs for entire strategies;

some reported estimates for each action. In the latter cases, we summed the action-wise cost estimates and recategorized a cost estimate for the entire strategy. Cost estimates were not reported for ten strategies. Nearly half of the adaptation strategies (15 of 32 strategies for which cost estimates were made) had cost estimates less than $100,000. Seventeen strategies were estimated to cost more than $100,000 or even $1,000,000 (Table 8). Such costs are not inconsequential, but neither are they prohibitively expensive, especially considering the spatial scale of so many of these projects. Table 8 Estimates of the cost of adaptation strategies Total cost of strategy Number of strategies ≥$1,000,000 8 ≥$100,000 9 ≥$10,000 13 <$10,000 2 Not estimated 10 Total 42 Some teams reported cost estimates for entire strategies; others estimated for each action separately.

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