25) (7 69) NONE NONE NONE lprN [Rv3495c] C798T C1016A [GenBank: H

25) (7.69) NONE NONE NONE lprN [Rv3495c] C798T C1016A [GenBank: HQ901094] Thr339Lys Ala266Ala (26.47) (29.09) (30.9) (31.57) (31.07) mce4F [Rv3494c] C117A C1214T [GenBank: HQ901087] Pro405Lys Thr39Thr (8.75) (9.09) (7.3) (10.52) (5.09) Frequency of single nucleotide check details polymorphisms detected in the genes of mce4 operon. The nucleotide

changes and the corresponding changes Histone Methyltransferase inhibitor & DOT1 inhibitor in amino acids are shown here. The frequency of SNPs was calculated from 112 clinical isolates. The data has been subdivided according to the drug susceptibility profile. The single letter nucleotide designations used are as follows: A, adenine; C, cytosine; G, guanine and T, thymidine. The three letter amino acid designations used are as follows Ala, alanine; Ile, isoleucine; Pro, proline; Val, valine; Gly, glycine; Phe, phenylalanine; www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1838705a.html Thr, threonine; Arg, arginine; Ser; serine; Gln, glutamine and Lys, lysine. DS: drug sensitive, DR: drug resistant, SDR: single drug resistant, MDR TB: Multi drug resistant Effect of SNPs on codon usage in mce operons The preferential usage of codons for different amino acids in various organisms including M. tuberculosis is well known. The codon bias influences the translational efficiency in these organisms [15]. Therefore, we analysed the codon usage in M. tuberculosis for synonymous changes observed in both mce1 and mce4 operons. Analysis revealed that codons of amino acids were changed to the

next preferred codon (Table 3). It is possible that such altered preference for certain codons would alter the expression of the respective proteins. Table 3 Codon usage in mce1 and mce4 operons Operon Gene name (Accession Number) Wild type codon Polymorphic codon mce1 operon mce1A [Rv0169] TAC TA T   yrbE4A [Rv3501c] GCG ATC GC T AT A mce4 yrbE4B [Rv3500c] ATC CCC AT T CC T operon mce4A [Rv3499c] TTC TT T   lprN [Rv3495c] GCC GC T   mce4F [Rv3494c] ACC AC A The codon usage in the polymorphic regions is shown here. The synonymous changes in the nucleotide sequence, when analysed bioinformatically through Gene Runner software version 3.05 (Hastings Software, Inc.) MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit predicts the usage of less preferred codon which could reflect

upon the expression efficiency of the protein encoded by the gene. Nucleotide highlighted in bold indicates the altered nucleotide. Prediction of functional consequences of nonsynonymous SNPs by PolyPhen and PMut servers The functional impact of 12 nonsynonymous SNPs in proteins of mce1 and mce4 operons was analyzed using PolyPhen http://​genetics.​bwh.​harvard.​edu/​pph/​ and PMut http://​mmb2.​pcb.​ub.​es:​8080/​PMut/​ servers. Of the 12 nonsynonymous SNPs studied, 5 nonsynonymous SNPs were predicted to be deleterious to the organism by both PolyPhen and PMut programs. These nonsynonymous SNPs were located in the genes yrbE1B [Rv0168] (NN output; 0.84, PSIC score; 1.6), mce1A [Rv0169] (NN output; 0.84, PSIC score; 2.04), mce1B [Rv0170] (NN output; 0.59, PSIC score; 1.

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