Natalia Bechtereva, a Russian neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of therapeutic chronic deep brain stimulation to treat various brain disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Denise Albe-Fessard, a French neurophysiologist, pioneered the technique of microelectrode recording (MER) in stereotactic functional neurosurgery. Gunvor Kullberg, a Swedish neurosurgeon, contributed in early CT imaging as well as early functional imaging of stereotactic lesions in PD and psychiatric patients. Hilda Molina, a Cuban neurosurgeon, established the Centro Internacional de Restauracion Neurologica selleck chemicals llc (CIREN) and pioneered there MER-guided transplant surgery in PD patients. Veerle Vandewalle, a Belgian neurosurgeon, pioneered
in 1999 deep brain stimulation BEZ235 order (DBS) for Tourette Syndrome.
Conclusion: Although men constitute the great majority of neurosurgeons, neurologists and other neuro-specialists who have made groundbreaking contributions in basal ganglia surgery, there are women who have made equally important and unique contributions to the field. The principal
two techniques used today in functional stereotactic neurosurgery, MER and DBS, have once upon a time been pioneered by women. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Foreign body aspiration can be a fatal problem in all groups of ages. However, it is a leading cause of accidental deaths in children. Especially in the pediatric age group, diagnosis can be delayed because of various challenges. Children younger than 3 years carry the highest risk, as they are inclined to explore objects with their mouths. In most cases of inhaled foreign body, a positive history of aspiration is obtained. We are reporting a case of laryngeal foreign body that is mistreated for 1 week as a croup syndrome.”
“Background: In degenerative intervertebral discs (IVDs) collagen type X expression and calcifications have been demonstrated, resembling advanced osteoarthritis (OA), which is associated with hypertrophic
differentiation, characterized by the production of collagen type X, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), osteoprotegerin (OPG), alkaline phosphatase Selleck Fer-1 (ALP) and calcifications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if hypertrophic differentiation occurs during IVD degeneration.
Methods: IVDs from all Thompson degeneration grades were prepared for histology, extraction of nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosis (AF) tissue (N = 50) and micro-CT (N = 27). The presence of collagen type X, OPG and Runx2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, with OPG levels also determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The presence of calcification was determined by micro-CT, von Kossa and Alizarin Red staining.
Results: Immunohistochemical staining for collagen type X, OPG, Runx2 appeared more intense in the NP of degenerative compared to healthy IVD samples. OPG levels correlated significantly with degeneration grade (NP: P<0.