Word processing and saccade buildup were both modeled by a race to threshold. In both reading and scanning, the network produces realistic distributions of fixation times when compared with human data.”
“The lack of a suitable in vitro hepatitis B virus (HBV) infectivity model has limited examination of the early stages of the virus-cell interaction. In this study, we used an immortalized cell line derived from human primary hepatocytes, HuS-E/2, to study the mechanism of HBV infection. HBV infection efficiency was markedly increased after dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation of the cells. Transmission electron
microscopy demonstrated the presence of intact HBV particles in DMSO-treated HBV-infected HuS-E/2 cells, which could Barasertib in vitro be infected with HBV for up to at least 50 passages. The pre-S1 domain of the large HBsAg (LHBsAg) protein specifically interacted with clathrin heavy chain (CHC) and clathrin adaptor protein AP-2. Short hairpin RNA knockdown of CHC or AP-2 in HuS-E/2 cells significantly reduced their susceptibility to HBV, indicating that both are necessary for HBV infection. Furthermore, HBV entry was inhibited by chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. LHBsAg also interfered with the clathrin-mediated
find more endocytosis of transferrin by human hepatocytes. This infection system using an immortalized human primary hepatocyte cell line will facilitate investigations into HBV entry and in devising therapeutic strategies for manipulating HBV-associated liver disorders.”
“Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience
has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neuroimaging techniques with simple but realistic tasks adapted from Z-VAD-FMK supplier experimental economics, this approach allows for the discrimination and modeling of processes that are important in cooperative behavior. Here, we review evidence demonstrating that many of the processes underlying cooperation overlap with rather fundamental brain mechanisms, such as, for example, those involved in reward, punishment and learning. In addition, we review how social expectations induced by an interactive context and the experience of social emotions may influence cooperation and its associated underlying neural circuitry, and we describe factors that appear important for generating cooperation, such as the provision of incentives. These findings illustrate how cognitive neuroscience can contribute to the development of more accurate, brain-based, models of cooperative decision making.