05). When questioned on return, of the 106 interviewed, 80 (75%) had taken chemoprophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis use was significantly greater among those who had attended a travel clinic (55/64; 86%) than among those who had been only to a
AZD6244 travel agent (25/42; 60%) (p < 0.05). Among those taking chemoprophylaxis, 15% had taken chloroquine, which is inadequate for sub-Saharan Africa. The travel agent attendees were much more likely to be using chloroquine alone (13/42; 31%) than the 3/64 (5%) in the travel clinic group. Only 29% had used appropriate chemoprophylaxis (correct drug, dosage, and adherence including after return), more (p < 0.05) from the travel clinic (26/64:41%) group than the travel agent Dactolisib cohort (5/42; 12%). Several factors influencing the use of chemoprophylaxis among VFRs have been proposed. These include cost11,12; fear of side effects11; uncertainty about drug efficacy, either as a result of “getting used to them” or connected to mosquito resistance12; feeling that the drugs are only effective against a more serious “type” of malaria; and distrust of doctors.12 Practical concerns include the bitter
taste and side effects experienced12; traveling at short notice11; or for short periods of time.12 The opportunity for sharing chemoprophylaxis with friends and relatives living in the malarious area10,12 may also influence correct adherence when chemoprophylaxis is obtained. A list of reasons for not “being vaccinated” (a˜proxy term used
for taking pre-travel advice) was described in the Dutch study.11 In this study, more than 10 participants mentioned never taking preventive measures and buying medication in West Africa. Between five STK38 and nine respondents gave their reasons as: having had all vaccinations; not easily getting sick; it not being important or necessary. Less than five reported: “only taking tablets”; it being only necessary for children; cure being cheaper or easier to get; not knowing it was needed; the room being insect free; using traditional methods instead; avoidance of unhygienic food or water; a belief that the individual cannot die now; and protection from God. There have been several calls for more research to be undertaken to understand the reasons for the high incidence of imported malaria in the African community, and for targeted interventions to be implemented to reduce this.2,13,14 Despite this, although many papers have discussed clinical issues in managing cases of imported malaria or described the epidemiology, very little qualitatively focused primary research, exploring factors that might influence the low use of preventive measures against malaria in these communities, has been carried out. Those studies which were identified were small scale, of differing designs, and the variation in methodologies used hindered true comparison. This means generalizable conclusions are difficult to make. Comparisons are also hampered by a lack of uniformity in definitions used.