Overall, very few functional imaging studies were available on Torin 1 nmr cognitive flexibility (see Table 4). While SAs (cocaine-dependent subjects) showed decreased activation during a cognitive flexibility task in the anterior cingulate gyrus, medial PFC, and subcortical regions (thalamus and lentiform nucleus), no differences were found in lateral prefrontal cortices (DL and
anterior frontal) compared with HCs. During an attention task, however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical decreased DL (and VM) PFC as well as ACC, and medial frontal gyrus activation was found in SAs (cocaine) compared with HCs, but activation patterns between smokers and HCs did not differ during planning. General Discussion A number of converging findings emerged in key brain regions during Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical specific tasks, including increased activation in the limbic system following cue-reactivity paradigms, and increased DLPFC and PFC activity in cognitive and motor impulsivity studies, respectively. However, there were also several inconsistencies, which can probably be explained by methodological differences with regard to tasks and protocols used, study population, imaging modalities, and data analysis. Whereas we discussed these possible explanations in each section separately, in this section
we will discuss some general issues in neuroimaging Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical research and provide an outline for future research. Unfortunately, as mentioned before, only few studies are available on executive functioning, precluding assessment of common findings and inconsistencies in these areas. Also, two previous reviews concluded Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that there was reduced anterior and posterior cingulate activation, and reduced inferior frontal, DLPFC, and parietal activation during process-related functioning, but these studies were limited to cocaine and (meth-)amphetamine users (Hong et Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical al. 2009; Gu et al. 2010). Both reviews are very similar in their conclusions regarding differences between users and controls: both proposed that altered brain activation patterns are related to the demand-specific processing of
information, rather than generic differences between stimulants users and controls. In addition, both reviews also conclude that these differences are consistent with a shift to more stereotyped, of habitual behavior. The findings of this review appear to fit rather well a number of aspects of different but partly overlapping theories of drug addiction. Reward and punishment-, motor impulsivity-, and cue-reactivity imaging studies support a role for the I-RISA model: impaired prefrontal functioning that may play a key role in inadequate evaluation of natural reinforcers and in impaired response inhibition, while limbic dysregulation (e.g., amygdala overactivation) would reflect increased valuation of drug stimuli.