. The animals were placed in the apparatus and performed between 5 and 10 repetitions with 40% to 60% of their body weight, three times per week for one week. This load was considered low intensity as it has already been demonstrated that non-trained rats can lift up to
three times their body weight upon first contact with the referred apparatus . The rats were placed in a neoprene vest leaving them in bipedal position of the lower limbs. An electrical stimulus (4–5 mA, 0.3 seconds long, with a 3 second interval GNS-1480 ic50 between each repetition) was applied in the rat’s tail using a surface electrode, in order to provoke the extension movement of the lower limbs of the rat, thus raising the load imposed in the squat apparatus. As this stimulus is considered low intensity, it is not expected to cause any physical injury to the animals . All training sessions were performed in a dark room. To determine the maximum lifted load in one repetition, the One Maximum Repetition (1MR) was utilized. From the obtained value, the load percentages required to perform the training protocol were determined. In response to training, strength gains were reported, Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor making the realization of retests every two weeks necessary, in order to adjust the training load. The training protocol lasted for a total eight weeks, at a frequency of four times per week.
Each training session consisted of four series of 10–12 repetitions with a load of 65-75% of 1MR with a 90 second interval between each series . The training program followed the guidelines of the American Physiological Society (2006) . Creatine supplementation protocol The groups that were administered Avelestat (AZD9668) creatine monohydrate (presentation form: powder, purity: 99.9%, Delaware Laboratory, RS, Brazil) were given this by gavage solutions, as this resembles human oral consumption
and ensures that the desired dose is achieved. The dosage of supplement administered followed the recommendations of the International Society of Sports Nutrition (2007) . During the saturation period, which was the first seven days prior to the initiation of training, the dosage of 0.3 g/kg/day of creatine, diluted with 1.5 ml distilled water, was established. In the maintenance period, which comprised the last seven weeks, the dosage was set at 0.05 g/kg/day of creatine, which was diluted with 1.5 ml of distilled water. The animals received the supplement every day before training for the Nutlin-3a research buy entire period of the protocol (including the days on which they did not train). Blood and tissues collection The blood collection was performed through the decapitation method. The blood was stored in 2 ml Eppendorf microtubes containing EDTA and subsequently centrifuged (3,000 rpm for 10 minutes at 4°C) to separate the supernatant plasma. After blood collection, the collection of tissues (heart, liver and gastrocnemius) was performed, and samples were frozen at -80°C.